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    Progress of China's Lunar Exploration (2011-2020)
    LI Chunlai, LIU Jianjun, ZUO Wei, SU Yan, OUYANG Ziyuan
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2021, 41 (1): 68-75.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2021.01.068
    Abstract757)      PDF(pc) (1017KB)(258)      
    The progress of China's lunar exploration in the past 10 years from 2011 to 2020 was reviewed. The implementation of the Chang'E-3 and Chang'E-4 missions as well as the major scientific achievements were highlighted. The future development of China's lunar and planetary exploration has prospected.
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    Recent Advances and Prospect in Space Physics
    WANG Chi, DOU Xiankang, GONG Jiancun, FU Suiyan, ZHANG Shaodong, ZHANG Xiaomin, CAO Jinbin, YANG Huigen, WU Jian, WANG Jinsong, XIA Lidong, DENG Xiaohua, XIAO Fuliang, FANG Hanxian
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2021, 41 (1): 1-9.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2021.01.001
    Abstract667)      PDF(pc) (1005KB)(423)      
    Space physics is a rapid-developing cross-disciplinary subject after entering space age, especially it has got great achievements in the new century. This paper will briefly present the important advances and scientific results, analyze the development trends, and suggest future key directions.
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    Review of the 40-year Development of China's Space Exploration
    GU Yidong, WU Ji, CHEN Hu, FAN Bin, JIAO Weixin, LIU Jianbo, MENG Xin, XIAO Guoqing, YUAN Hong, YUAN Li, ZHANG Xiaomin, ZHANG Xiaoxin, ZHAO Guangheng, ZHOU Xubin, ZHU Zhencai
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2021, 41 (1): 10-21.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2021.01.010
    Abstract498)      PDF(pc) (2426KB)(342)      
    The 40 years after Chinese Society of Space Research was founded in 1980, is a period when Chinese space exploration gradually walks onto the world stage, with space science and related disciplines developed, and its applications in economic, military section and people's daily life. The article reviews the course of Chinese space exploration that dates back to the year 1980 when the society's space exploration committee was founded, covering the main programs, their progress and output of sounding rockets, science balloons, lunar and planetary exploration, human space exploration, remote sensing ground stations, and concludes in looking to the near future.
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    Developments and Future Strategies of Earth Science from Space in China
    SHI Jiancheng, GUO Huadong, DONG Xiaolong, LIANG Shunlin, CHEN Jingming, GONG Peng, YANG Xiaofeng, CHENG Jie, LIN Mingsen, ZHANG Peng, ZHANG Wei, JU Weimin, LIU Yi, LI Zengyuan, ZHAO Tianjie
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2021, 41 (1): 95-117.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2021.01.095
    Abstract472)      PDF(pc) (1350KB)(303)      
    The Earth Science from Space is a comprehensive interdisciplinary science to study the interaction, process and evolution of different spheres in the Earth system based on the information observed from the satellite observations. In order to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the establishment of the Chinese Society of Space Research, this paper will systematically review the achievements of the Earth Science from Space in China, the current challenges, and put forward suggestions for future developments.
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    Development and Prospect of Hyperspectral Imager and Its Application
    WANG Jianyu, LI Chunlai
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2021, 41 (1): 22-33.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2021.01.022
    Abstract470)      PDF(pc) (8355KB)(227)      
    Surface morphology and target characteristics are two important problems in remote sensing. Surface morphology is a geometric problem and the aim of photogrammetry. Target characteristics are not only a physical and chemical problem, but also an important problem to be solved in the development of hyperspectral remote sensing. After decades of development, hyperspectral remote sensing technology has made great progress, from data acquisition, processing to application. As a new and young technology involving multiple disciplines, hyperspectral remote sensing development is a demand-oriented process in which the demand is constantly explored. Especially, the hyperspectral imager is the only tool to obtain hyperspectral data, and its development is very important for the development of hyperspectral remote sensing. In the paper, the feature and application of different types of hyperspectral imagers are analyzed, and some conclusions of hyperspectral imagers in recent 40 years are obtained. Combined with the current development status of hyperspectral imager, the future development trend of hyperspectral imager, especially the development of key indices and technology, is prospected to provide some ideas for the follow-up research in this field, and also to provide a reference for the related remote sensing satellite missions.
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    Chinese Journal of Space Science    0, (): 963-963.  
    Abstract443)      PDF(pc) (248KB)(96)      
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    Recent Review and Prospect of Space Life Science in China for 40 Years
    LI Yinghui, SUN Yeqing, ZHENG Huiqiong, SHANG Peng, QU Lina, LEI Xiaohua, LIU Hong, LIU Min, HE Rongqiao, LONG Mian, SUN Xiqing, WANG Junfeng, ZHOU Guangming, SUN Lianwen
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2021, 41 (1): 46-67.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2021.01.046
    Abstract389)      PDF(pc) (4498KB)(376)      
    The exploration of space life science in China originated in the 1960s. With the formal establishment of the professional committee in 1981, space life science has entered a new stage of multi-disciplinary development and multi-institution construction based on the academic exchange platform of this specialty. With the further development of China's manned spaceflight and space exploration research, a series of key achievements have been made in several important fields of space life science, led by sub-disciplines or major problems. In this paper, the development history and landmark achievements of space life science in China for 40 years will be summarized from the aspects of development history, research results, platform model, major projects and international cooperation and follow-up prospects, in order to provide reference and valuable information for subsequent development.
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    Statistical Investigation on the Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Wind Variation Based on ACE Observations
    GUO Xiaocheng, CAO Shihao, XIONG Ming
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2020, 40 (6): 969-979.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2020.06.969
    Abstract331)      PDF(pc) (992KB)(86)      
    Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) are originated from the interstellar medium and modulated by the heliospheric magnetic field when they enter the heliosphere. Based on the GCR and plasma observations from ACE spacecraft, the relation between the GCR counts and the solar wind parameters during the recent two periods of solar minimum (the years of 2007.0-2009.0 and 2016.5-2019.0) was analyzed by means of the Superposed Epoch Analysis (SEA) method. The results indicate that GCRs are strongly modulated by the Corotating Interaction Regions (CIR) in solar wind, the Stream Interfaces (SI) sandwiched between fast and slow solar wind are closely related with the depression of GCR counts. The mechanism of the GCR variation is investigated through the empirical diffusion coefficients. The so-called "snow-plough" effect of GCR variation prior to the SI crossing appears during the first period, then the GCR counts decrease after the crossing, which corresponds to the sudden drop of diffusion coefficient at the SI. However, this effect is not observed for the second period, the decrease of GCR counts are simply caused by the enhancement of the diffusion coefficient after the SI crossing. Moreover, Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS) correlate with GCR counts well, the GCRs drift along the current sheet and then accumulate to a pileup structure, which is physically balanced between their diffusion and drift effects. Finally, based on the observation and Parker transport theory, we discuss the physical mechanism of the GCR variation for the crossings of SIs and HCS, and proposed that the interplay between drift and diffusion determines the GCR distribution and variation at a heliocentric distance of 1AU.
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    40 Years of Space Astronomy in China
    WU Bobing, MA Yuqian, ZHANG Shuangnan, CHANG Jin
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2021, 41 (1): 84-94.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2021.01.084
    Abstract301)      PDF(pc) (6985KB)(143)      
    In the past 40 years, China's space astronomy has achieved tremendous development. Especially in the past 10 years, several astronomical satellites have been launched, and several astronomical satellites will be launched in the next few years. In this paper, firstly the history of international space astronomy is briefly reviewed, then the development of space astronomy in China over the past 40 years is reviewed and summarized, including the first astronomical satellite plan in the 1970s, balloon-borne space astronomical exploration, space astronomy experiments based on Chinese manned space program and astronomical satellites. China's space astronomy missions are also briefly introduced, and space astronomy in China in the next 10 years is prospected.
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    Comparative Study of Bow Shock Models
    ZHOU Yue, Lü Jianyong, WANG Ming, YUAN Huanzhi
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2020, 40 (6): 990-999.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2020.06.990
    Abstract300)      PDF(pc) (1745KB)(52)      
    The Earth's bow shock is created by the interaction of the supersonic solar wind and the magnetospheric obstacle. The bow shock is a very important interface. When the satellites pass through the bow shock, its environment will change significantly. In catastrophic space weather conditions, it will cause great damage to the satellites. Therefore, investigating the shape of the bow shock is of great significance for space weather forecast and the satellite environment monitoring. In the past few decades, many bow shock models have been built to study the relationship between solar wind and bow shock. This paper compares the Peredo model, Merka model, Chao model, and Lu model under both extreme solar wind conditions (including large dipole tilt angle) and quiet solar wind conditions. Results show that during the extreme solar wind conditions and quiet solar wind conditions, the prediction of the Peredo model has a large deviation. Merka model is not accurate during the extreme solar wind conditions. Chao model can accurately describe the bow shock under quiet solar wind conditions but with a large deviation for large dipole tilt angle conditions. Lu model can accurately descry be bow shock under both extreme solar wind conditions and quiet solar wind conditions.
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    An Event Horizon Imager (EHI) Mission Concept Utilizing Medium Earth Orbit Sub-mm Interferometry
    KUDRIASHOV V, MARTIN-NEIRA M, ROELOFS F, FALCKE H, BRINKERINK C, BARYSHEV A, HOGERHEIJDE M, YOUNG A, POURSHAGHAGHI H, KLEIN-WOLT M, MOSCIBRODZKA M, DAVELAAR J, BARAT I, DUESMANN B, VALENTA V, PERDIGUES ARMENGOL J M, DE WILDE D, MARTIN IGLESIAS P, ALAGHA N, VAN DER VORST M
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2021, 41 (2): 211-233.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2021.02.211
    Abstract273)      PDF(pc) (5803KB)(134)      
    Submillimeter interferometry has the potential to image supermassive black holes on event horizon scales, providing tests of the theory of general relativity and increasing our understanding of black hole accretion processes. The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) performs these observations from the ground, and its main imaging targets are Sagittarius A* in the Galactic Center and the black hole at the center of the M87 galaxy. However, the EHT is fundamentally limited in its performance by atmospheric effects and sparse terrestrial (u,v)-coverage (Fourier sampling of the image). The scientific interest in quantitative studies of the horizon size and shape of these black holes has motivated studies into using space interferometry which is free of these limitations. Angular resolution considerations and interstellar scattering effects push the desired observing frequency to bands above 500 GHz.
    This paper presents the requirements for meeting these science goals, describes the concept of interferometry from Polar or Equatorial Medium Earth Orbits (PECMEO) which we dub the Event Horizon Imager (EHI), and utilizes suitable space technology heritage. In this concept, two or three satellites orbit at slightly different orbital radii, resulting in a dense and uniform spiral-shaped (u,v)-coverage over time. The local oscillator signals are shared via an inter-satellite link, and the data streams are correlated on-board before final processing on the ground. Inter-satellite metrology and satellite positioning are extensively employed to facilitate the knowledge of the instrument position vector, and its time derivative. The European space heritage usable for both the front ends and the antenna technology of such an instrument is investigated. Current and future sensors for the required inter-satellite metrology are listed. Intended performance estimates and simulation results are given.
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    Simulation of Mean Free Path of Solar Energetic Particles in Three-dimensional MHD Background
    WANG Shangjie, WEI Wenwen, LIU Yousheng, ZHU Yuji, SHEN Fang
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2020, 40 (6): 980-989.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2020.06.980
    Abstract266)      PDF(pc) (1121KB)(64)      
    The mean free path of SEP is an important parameter in the study of SEP propagation in space physics, which is determined by the physical properties of SEP and solar wind. In this paper, the MHD-SEP model is used to discuss the mean free path under the three-dimensional MHD background field. The advantage of this model is that it has the solar wind background field tending to the real physical model. Two CRs were selected to simulate the high and low years of solar activity, and the spatial changes were qualitatively analyzed, and the correlation between mean free path and radial solar wind speed was studied. The conclusion of the spatial distribution of the mean free equation obtained by this method can be consistent with that obtained by previous scholars, and can be used to qualitatively establish the parallel mean free equation. The model can reflect the different characteristics of the distribution and value of the parallel mean free path in different events. It shows that the average free path depends on the radial direction and has a good negative correlation with the radial solar wind velocity. This work can be used as a reference for future research on the mean free path of SEP.
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    Retrospect and Perspective on Microgravity Science in China
    ZHAO Jianfu, WANG Shuangfeng, LIU Qiang, HE Zhenhui, ZHANG Wei, LI Kai, ZHOU Zebing, LUO Xinghong, MIAO Jianyin, ZHENG Huiqiong, KANG Qi, CAI Weiming
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2021, 41 (1): 34-45.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2021.01.034
    Abstract266)      PDF(pc) (1191KB)(144)      
    The major objective of microgravity science is to study the movement laws of substances in microgravity, as well as to reveal the influence of gravity on the movement of materials in different gravity environments. China's microgravity research started in the 1960s and really rose in the middle and late 1980s. After years of efforts, it has begun to take shape, and has obvious characteristics and advantages in some important directions. In this paper, the early history of China's microgravity science is briefly reviewed. The emphases are put on the recent progress and the latest achievements of microgravity science and application researches in China carried out mainly by using the national space platforms, such as SJ-10 scientific experiment satellite, TG-2 space lab, and so on. Finally, the vision of China's microgravity science in the coming era of China Space Station (CSS) is prospected, so as to promote the rapid and sustainable development of microgravity science and application researches in China, for better serving the country and benefiting mankind.
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    Assessment of Ionospheric Real-time Data
    ZHAO Jinsheng
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2020, 40 (6): 1024-1029.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2020.06.1024
    Abstract254)      PDF(pc) (949KB)(51)      
    Ionospheric delay is one of the major error sources for single-frequency receivers. To improve the accuracy of ionospheric corrections in real-time, some Ionosphere Associate Analysis Centers started to provide real-time global ionospheric data. However, the accuracy of them is unknown. In this sense, this study takes the real-time ionospheric data provided by Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) as an example for assessment. First, the differences between different kinds of ionospheric data are calculated. Meanwhile, positioning accuracy corrected by real-time ionospheric data and ionospheric broadcast ionospheric model over different latitudes for different solar activity periods is presented. The experimental results show that the real-time ionospheric data cannot reflect the spatial variation over the oceanic region for the experimental period. The positioning accuracy corrected by real-time ionospheric data is better than that by ionospheric predicted products and Klobuchar model for high-latitude stations. However, the positioning accuracy corrected by real-time ionospheric data is a bit worse than that of Klobuchar model for mid-latitude stations, while it is better than that corrected by ionospheric predicted products and Klobuchar model for low-latitude stations.
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    Research of Monthly Zonal Winds Derived from Radio Occultation Temperature Data
    DU Xiaoyong, DU Zhitao, GUO Yuening, FU Yang
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2020, 40 (6): 1030-1038.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2020.06.1030
    Abstract247)      PDF(pc) (5918KB)(48)      
    In order to make up for the lack of wind data in the middle and upper atmosphere, the gradient wind fields between altitude of 20km to 60km are calculated by interpolating COSMIC temperature data of year 2007 into gridded data. The derived wind fields are compared with ECMWF reanalyzed data and HWM07 model outputs. Results show that the characteristics of wind fields derived from COSMIC temperature data are more similar with that of the reanalyzed data and are similar with HWM07 output as a whole, while are different from HWM07 data in detail. Compared with the ECMWF reanalyzed data, the mean differences of the zonal wind fields are within -1.50~-0.08m·-1, and the RMS are within 1.50~11.95m·-1. Compared with HWM07 outputs, the mean differences of the zonal wind fields are within -0.83~1.21m·-1, and the RMS are within 3.69m~11.14m·-1.
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    Mirror-image Biological Molecules
    CHEN Ji, ZHU Ting
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2021, 41 (1): 141-144.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2021.01.141
    Abstract246)      PDF(pc) (1079KB)(54)      
    The homochirality of biological molecules is a hallmark of all terrestrial life. Whether life's dependence on D-ribose nucleic acids and L-amino acids was required for the origins of life, or merely a chance event on prebiotic Earth remains unclear. Despite the challenges in elucidating the cause for homochirality, accumulating evidence suggests the possibility of synthesizing mirror-image life based on L-ribose nucleic acids and D-amino acids. Here we briefly summarize the recent findings in mirror-image biology and discuss the prospects of building mirror-image life in the laboratory using newly developed mirror-image molecular tools.
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    Research on Atmospheric Lidar Signal Simulation Based on HITRAN Database
    CUI Honglu, YAN Zhaoai, ZHANG Bingyan, GUO Wenjie, HU Xiong
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2020, 40 (6): 1046-1051.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2020.06.1046
    Abstract244)      PDF(pc) (611KB)(38)      
    Signal simulation is very important for atmospheric lidar research. It provides a basis for the design and development of lidar system. The simulation system in this paper can be used to simulate the lidar echo signal based on the absorption line data in the HITRAN database. It can calculate the absorption spectrum of atmospheric molecules, and the attenuation caused by aerosols. This simulation system can also calculate molecules scatter coefficient with parameters built in LOWTRAN and it can simulate the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the echo signal. The echo signals of 355nm, 532nm and 1064nm are simulated by the simulation system using the lidar equation and these signals agree well with the distribution of aerosols and atmospheric molecules. The simulation results of 532nm are compared with a Rayleigh Doppler lidar measured results and their results are consistent, which shows that the simulation system is reliable. The optical efficiency of this lidar system is roughly evaluated and its value is reasonable. The measured SNR and the simulated SNR are calculated. Their results are similar, so simulated SNR can evaluate the reliability of echo signals.
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    40 Years of Space Solar Physics in China
    GAN Weiqun, CHANG Jin, MA Yuqian
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2021, 41 (1): 76-83.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2021.01.076
    Abstract243)      PDF(pc) (1685KB)(154)      
    The 40 years anniversary of Chinese Society of Space Research is also the 40 years anniversary of Chinese Space Solar Physics. We briefly summarize the hard development of space solar physics in the past 40 years from around 1980 to 2020, including all the projects and every major effort, in spite of realized or unrealized ones. The prospection in the near future is also made.
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    A Potential Biomarker Phosphate for Life Exploration on Mars
    ZHAO Yufen, LIU Yan, HUANG Biling, GAO Xinchang
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2021, 41 (1): 129-132.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2021.01.129
    Abstract234)      PDF(pc) (445KB)(93)      
    The exploration for extraterrestrial life is one of the most important targets of deep space exploration. The successful launch of China's first Mars probe “Tianwen-1” has started the scientific exploration about the surface morphology and life signs of Mars. As the most similar planet to the earth in the solar system, Mars brings human being endless reverie. Is there life on Mars? Can human beings immigrate to Mars in the future? Phosphorus, one of the important elements for life, plays an irreplaceable role in the whole evolution of life. Phosphate can be used as a potential biomarker to provide new ideas and clues for life exploration on Mars.
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    Analysis of Ionospheric Irregularities and Disturbances at Middle and Low Latitudes in China during the Magnetic Storm
    MEI Dengkui, WEN Debao
    Chinese Journal of Space Science    2020, 40 (6): 1007-1013.   DOI: 10.11728/cjss2020.06.1007
    Abstract232)      PDF(pc) (1068KB)(63)      
    A strong magnetic storm occurred on 8 September 2017 with the Kp index reaching its maximum of 8. The Regional Ionosphere Maps (RIM) were utilized to analyze the ionospheric TEC (Total Electron Content) disturbances over China and its adjacent areas, and the ROTI (Rate of TEC Index) maps were utilized to analyze the ionospheric irregularities in the low-latitude areas of China during the magnetic storm. Furthermore, the dual-frequency GPS observations of three IGS stations at BJFS (39.6°N, 115.9°E), JFNG (30.5°N, 114.5°E) and HKWS (22.4°N, 114.3°E) were used to obtain the trends of ROTI and DROT (standard deviation of differential ROT) indexes for each station. The results showed that during this magnetic storm, the ionospheric positive phase disturbances dominated in the beginning and mainly occurred at middle-and-low latitudes of China, and the dTEC (differential TEC) reached its maximum of 14.9TECU at about 04:00UT. Then the ionospheric positive phase disturbances gradually declined, the ionospheric negative phase disturbances began to occur at low latitudes of China with the dTEC reaching its minimum of -7.2TECU at about 12:00UT. There were obvious ionospheric irregularities observed at lower latitudes in southern China during 12:30UT-13:30UT. Compared with the BJFS and JFNG stations, the ROTI and DROT indexes of HKWS station at low latitude exhibited instability, indicating the latitudinal differences of ionospheric irregularities.
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