Table of Content

    15 September 2017, Volume 37 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Electrostatic Structure of the Electron Phase-space Holes Generated by the Electron Two-stream Instability with a Finite Width
    SANG Longlong, WU Mingyu, LU Quanming
    2017, 37 (5):  517-523.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2017.05.517
    Abstract ( 578 )   PDF (6408KB) ( 1368 )   Save

    Space satellite observations in an electron phase-space hole (electron hole) have shown that bipolar structures are discovered at the parallel cut of parallel electric field, while unipolar structures spring from the parallel cut of perpendicular electric field. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have demonstrated that the electron bi-stream instability induces several electron holes during its nonlinear evolution. However, how the unipolar structure of the parallel cut of the perpendicular electric field formed in these electron holes is still an unsolved problem, especially in a strongly magnetized plasma (Ωe > ωpe, where Ωe is defined as electron gyrofrequency and ωpe is defined as plasma frequency, respectively). In this paper, with two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic PIC simulations, the evolution of the electron two-stream instability with a finite width in strongly magnetized plasma is investigated. Initially, those conditions lead to monochromatic electrostatic waves, and these waves coalesce with each other during their nonlinear evolution. At last, a solitary electrostatic structure is formed. In such an electron hole, a bipolar structure is formed in the parallel cut of parallel electric field, while a unipolar structure presents in the parallel cut of perpendicular electric field.

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    Statistical Study on the Response of TEC to Geomagnetic Stormsormalsize
    YANG Ding, FANG Hanxian, YANG Shenggao, WANG Sicheng
    2017, 37 (5):  524-530.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2017.05.524
    Abstract ( 944 )   PDF (9225KB) ( 748 )   Save

    The ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) in the daytime is often greatly disturbed during geomagnetic storms. Recent reports suggest that the disturbance of TEC depends on the Universal Time (UT) of storm onset. By using the TEC global maps over a 7-year period produced by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the response of TEC to geomagnetic storms is investigated. The analysis confirms that TEC increases obviously in day time, and extends across the noon sector with an afternoon peak. In 18:00UT-04:00 UT, American sector continues to exhibit a storm time, which TEC enhancement is higher than those observed in the other sector. It is possibly related to the sunlight in day time. In order to study the relation between TEC enhancement and the corresponding magnetic storms, the TEC data are divided into quiet (Dst>-50nT) and active (Dst<-100nT) sets using Dst index. The results show that the TEC variation at low latitudes has negative relation to Dst as the TEC variation is moved forward about 2 hours. The relation coefficient is -0.75. The TEC variation at middle latitudes has negative relation to Dst with a coefficient of -0.61, as it is moved forward about 1 hour. The reason may be that the travelling atmosphere disturbance carries the equatorial meridional wind, and propagates from polar region to low latitude. It can be concluded that the TEC variation is induced by geomagnetic storms. However, the correlation is poor at high latitudes. It is possibly because of the complexity of sectors at high latitudes.

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    Numerical Simulation of Oblique Ionospheric Heating Effects in Nanjing Districtormalsize
    GUO Zhe, FANG Hanxian, HE Yingming, YANG Ding, MA Jie, JING Wenqi, WANG Shiqi
    2017, 37 (5):  531-537.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2017.05.531
    Abstract ( 1428 )   PDF (2063KB) ( 2025 )   Save

    Compared with vertical heating, oblique ionospheric heating has advantages of higher flexibility, wider effect range and more practicable operability. In this paper, based on the energy conservation equation and continuity equation of electron, the physical model is built for lower ionosphere heated by oblique radio wave by considering Ohm absorption in the non-deviated section, and oblique heating in low ionosphere over Nanjing district is simulated using the background parameters obtained by IRI-2007 and NRLMSISE-00 models. The results show that heating effect increases when incident elevation angle and effective radiated power increase. The rising amplitude of electronic temperature and density decreases when the frequency of radio wave increases. The perturbation amplitudes of electron temperature and density caused by X mode are bigger than those caused by O mode, and X mode can make electron temperature and electron density reach a steady state more quickly than O mode. Within a certain range, the radio wave with smaller incident elevation angle, lower frequency and larger effective power can make electron density reach a steady state more quickly, and the latter two can also accelerate the process of electron temperature to reach stability. The time that electron temperature to reach stability varies singlet with elevation angle of incident electromagnetic wave, and will be a maximum as the elevation angle is 62°.

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    Error Analysis of Typical Atmospheric Density Modelormalsize
    LIU Wei, WANG Ronglan, LIU Siqing, GONG Jiancun
    2017, 37 (5):  538-546.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2017.05.538
    Abstract ( 638 )   PDF (3292KB) ( 910 )   Save

    Based on the density data from May 15, 2001 to Dec. 31, 2008 derived from CHAMP accelerometer, the errors of JB2008 and MSISE00 model are analyzed. The results show that the two models both overestimate the atmospheric density, and the JB2008 model is better than the MSISE00 model (the average biases of JB2008 and MSISE00 are 2.2% and 17.6% respectively). Most relative error of JB2008 mode is from -20% to 20%, the proportion is as high as 89%. However, it is only 58% in the case of MSISE00. The two models have no obvious difference below the height of 450km, which is consistent with the conclusion of literature. Space environment is classified into four types, and the model characteristics of latitude and local time are analyzed for each kind of space environment. MSISE00 model has better local time characteristics while JB2008 has better latitude characteristics. The results are valuable for mastering the model error characteristics and improving the atmospheric density model.

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    Characteristics of Quasi-monochromatic Inertia Gravity Waves Revealed by First Meteorological Rocket Data of the Meridian Space Weather Monitoring Projectormalsize
    WANG Bo, HU Xiong, XIAO Cunying, SHI Dongbo, WEI Feng, WANG Xinying, WANG Lianzhong
    2017, 37 (5):  547-553.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2017.05.547
    Abstract ( 841 )   PDF (1585KB) ( 670 )   Save

    Wind and temperature data detected by the first meteorological rocket of the Meridian Space Weather Monitoring Project were used to study quasi-monochromatic inertia Gravity Waves (GW) over Hainan rocket launch site (19.5°N, 109°E). The GW extracted from the stratosphere (troposphere) revealed by rocket sonde data is upward (downward) GW, and propagates against the background wind. The intrinsic period, vertical wavelength λz, horizontal wavelength λh, vertical group velocity cgz, and horizontal group velocity cgh of Stratospheric (Tropospheric) GW are 20.1h (22.4h), 9.5km (4km), 2900km (753km), 0.0887 (0.0298)m·-1, and 12.7 (3.65)m·-1, respectively. There is a significant difference between cgh/cgz and λh/λz because of the background wind. The value of λh/λz and cgh/cgz is 305:1 (188:1) and 143:1 (122:1) for the stratospheric (tropospheric) GW.

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    Characteristics of Vertical Wind Perturbations in the Mesopause Region Based on Lidar Measurements and Dynamic Simulations ormalsize
    BA Jin, YAN Zhaoai, HU Xiong, GUO Shangyong, GUO Wenjie, CHENG Yongqiang
    2017, 37 (5):  554-563.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2017.05.554
    Abstract ( 779 )   PDF (1192KB) ( 659 )   Save

    A total of 82h vertical wind and zonal wind profile data obtained by the Na fluorescence Doppler lidar at Langfang observatory of National Space Science Center, are used to simulate the vertical wind perturbations by using the polarization and dispersion relation of 3D quasi-monochromatic gravity wave. The observation data show that, including the measurement error, the perturbation magnitude of vertical wind and horizontal wind is about 10m·-1, and the perturbations of vertical wind are much larger than those of the background vertical wind. The mean background vertical wind is -0.015m·-1. According to the different frequency, the gravity waves are divided into high, medium and low frequency waves. In the conditions of short period and large zonal wind perturbations, the vertical wind perturbations induced by high frequency gravity wave can reach 10m·-1, and the vertical wind perturbations induced by medium frequency gravity wave is less than 10m·-1, the vertical wind perturbations induced by low-frequency gravity waves is less than 1m·-1. The results indicate that the quasi-monochromatic gravity wave is capable of producing 10m·-1 vertical wind perturbations. In conclusion, 10m·-1 vertical wind perturbations measured by the Na fluorescence Doppler lidar at Langfang station agree with theoretical results. The study can provide theoretical basis for measuring and simulating of vertical wind, and gravity wave parameterizations.

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    Residual Ozone and Ozonesonde Correction Factor over Different Sites of Chinaormalsize
    ZHENG Xiangdong, TIAN Hongmin, LIU Mengqi
    2017, 37 (5):  564-573.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2017.05.564
    Abstract ( 689 )   PDF (2173KB) ( 719 )   Save

    Residual ozone Ωres is the integrated column ozone from the balloon bursting altitude, which is generally from 30~5hPa, to the top of atmosphere. The ozonesonde correction factor Cref is the ratio of total column ozone Ω, which is precisely observed by ground or spacebased spectrophotometer, to the summery of Ωecc and Ωres. Ωecc is the integrated ozonesonde data from ground to the balloon bursting altitude. Cref is applied to assess and correct the stratospheric ozonesonde data with the well qualified Ω. Based on the sporadic Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesonde data observed at different sites of China, Ωres deduced by the Constant Mixing Ratio (CMR) and satellite zonal mean (including SBUV and MLS tables) are presented, and the impact of Ωres on Cref is investigated. The contributions of ozone vertical distribution to Cref are also analyzed, and appropriate method to quantify Ωres is proposed through the Cref comparisons. Ωres deduced by CMR method is sensitive to the balloon-bursting altitude, and is frequently overestimated. As a result, Cref is generally less than 100%. Ωres deduced by the satellite zonal mean method is not sensitive to the balloon-bursting altitude. However, Cref is lower than about -10DU in two regions. One region is in east of China, such as Longfengshan in Heilongjiang province and Beijing, which is high total column ozone; the other region is Tibetan plateau and other low latitude districts including Hong Kong, which is low column ozone. The satellite zonally underestimated Ωres reflects the longitude dependence of real atmospheric ozone over China. The tropospheric column ozone Ωtro from the surface to 100hPa, stratospheric column ozone Ωstr from 100 to 10hpa and Ωres to Cref account 16%±3.4%, 65%±2.3%, 19%±3.3%, respectively. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the effects from Ωtro and Ωres on the evaluation or correction stratospheric ozone measured by ozonesonde if Cref is used. The satellite zonal mean method is generally recommended, especially the Ωres obtained when it is very close to the quasi real-time SBUV data. However, as the balloon bursting altitude above 10hPa, the conventional CMR method is also recommended for the two regions including north of east and north in China (winter and summer)-the high total ozone region, and Hong Kong (summer, autumn and winter), Tibetan plateau (summer) -the low total ozone region. It can weaken a system underestimation of Cref if the satellite deduced Ωres is used.

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    Simulation of Duration of LEO-LEO Occultation Events and Relative Angular Velocity between Satellitesormalsize
    SUN Ligang, WU Xiaocheng, HU Xiong
    2017, 37 (5):  574-584.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2017.05.574
    Abstract ( 938 )   PDF (2612KB) ( 719 )   Save

    The effects of satellite orbit parameters on the duration of LEO-LEO occultation events and relatively angular velocity between satellites are discussed through simulation. The results show that the orbit parameters of LEO-LEO satellites, which have great effects on the duration of LEO-LEO occultation events, are the orbit inclination, followed by right ascension of ascending node and the orbit height. However, the argument of perigee has little effect on the duration. As the inclination angles of LEO-LEO satellites are complementary angles, the duration reaches its minimum value 98s. If the sum of the orbit inclination and the difference of Right Ascension of Ascending Node (RAAN) of two satellites is from 120° to 240°, the duration is about from 100s to 150s. The higher the satellite orbit is, the shorter the duration of the occultation is. During the occultation events, the maximum of relative angular velocity in the horizontal direction is about 0.14(°)·-1, and the maximum of relative angular velocity in the vertical direction is about 0.078(°)·-1. These conclusions provide valuable reference for the design of LEO-LEO occultation orbit, the transmitter, and the receiver.

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    Development and Calibration of Thermal Ion Mass Spectrometerormalsize
    KONG Linggao, ZHANG Aibing, ZHENG Xiangzhi, LIU Yong, AN Yaya, LIANG Jinbao, SUN Yueqiang, ZHU Guangwu, SHI Chunyan, SHEN Dongmei
    2017, 37 (5):  585-592.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2017.05.585
    Abstract ( 824 )   PDF (2309KB) ( 641 )   Save

    Thermal ion mass discrimination is one of the key techniques for the space plasma detection. In order to measure the energy spectra and composition of space plasma, the Thermal Ion Mass Spectrometer (TIMS) utilizes a hemisphere electrostatic analyzer accompanied with a time of flight unit based on ultra-thin carbon foil. It has been used broadly in space plasma measurement. Three key techniques, such as 5mV high resolution sweeping high voltage, 10~20nm ultra-thin carbon foil treatment, and 30kV acceleration high voltage, have been resolved in the process of TIMS development. The prototype of TIMS has been calibrated by the calibration system in the University of Bern. The calibration results show that the performances of TIMS are as follows. The energy measurement range is from 0.499eV to 29.94keV, and the energy resolution is 10.5%. The field of view is 360°×8.4°, and the angular resolution is 22.5°×8.4°. The main ion species including H+, He+, O+ can be resolved. On the basis of the research work in this study, more advanced plasma instruments with higher mass resolution, larger field of view and more miniature design can be developed.

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    Ground Measurement and Signal Estimation for Micro-vibration of Quantum Science Experimental Satelliteormalsize
    ZHAO Dan, HUANG Dishan, DENG Lei, ZHU Xiaocheng, DU Jicheng
    2017, 37 (5):  593-600.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2017.05.593
    Abstract ( 916 )   PDF (2793KB) ( 755 )   Save

    In this paper, micro-vibration measurement and signal estimation on the Quantum Science Experimental Satellite ground test is introduced. Based on the technology requirement of the satellite, the method of measurement is determined to detect the vibration of high-accuracy optical payloads when the oscillation source comes from on-board rotatable instruments, such as reaction wheel installed in the satellite body. The characteristics of vibration transfer from a vibration source to sensitive points are estimated, and vibration displacement and angular oscillation are approximated by applying an integration wavelet. The validation of the proposed method is confirmed by experimental test, and the result is of interest in ground test of micro-vibration for Quantum Science Experimental satellite with high accuracy payloads.

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    A Joint Method for Solving Combined DCB of Single Receiver GNSS Data ormalsize
    HOU Weijun, LI Yihong, XU Buyun, YANG Xiaoyun, LIU Daizhi
    2017, 37 (5):  601-607.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2017.05.601
    Abstract ( 876 )   PDF (1827KB) ( 871 )   Save

    The largest error sources of deriving TEC from GNSS observational data are Combined Differential Code Biases (CDCB) of instruments, including both satellite's DCB and receiver's DCB. Current existing methods for solving these DCBs are pretty suitable for multi-receiver cases, but under single receiver cases, they are not ideal for sparse ionospheric puncture points and time-unaligned signals among satellites. A joint method based on the local model fitting method and SCORE method is proposed to improve the solution for the single receiver case. The joint method takes advantage of the higher accuracy of local model fitting method during ionosphere quiet period, meanwhile it overcomes the disadvantage of strong restraint of SCORE method. By using of GPS and BDS data received by GP Station-6 receiver, the practical calculation proves the effectiveness and accuracy of the joint method.

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    Design of Spectral Continuous Adjustable Star Sensor's Ground Calibration Systemormalsize
    XU Da, ZHANG Guoyu, SUN Gaofei
    2017, 37 (5):  608-615.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2017.05.608
    Abstract ( 737 )   PDF (2959KB) ( 1003 )   Save

    In order to reduce the effect on calibration precision of star sensor's optical signal caused by the mismatching color temperature, a design of star sensor's ground calibration system with adjustable spectrum is presented. The spectrum range of the high-precision collimating optical system is from 500nm to 800nm, and the image quality evaluation shows that the distortion is less than 0.08% and the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) is greater than 0.6 at 60lp·mm-1. The composition and working principle of the DMD-based light source system are described, the spectrum resolution and the simulation accuracy are analyzed, and a set of Czerny-Turner light splitting optical system which spectrum resolution is better than 2nm is designed. The test result of the star sensor's ground calibration system shows that the accuracy of the star position is better than 7", and the accuracy of the star spectrum is better than 2% as the spectrum resolution is 10nm and better than 5% as the spectrum resolution is 20nm, the calibration error caused by the mismatching color temperature is significantly reduced.

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    Design and Mechanics Analysis of an X-type Cross-section Tubular Boomormalsize
    FAN Wenjie, WU Lin
    2017, 37 (5):  616-621.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2017.05.616
    Abstract ( 634 )   PDF (2741KB) ( 598 )   Save

    The mechanics properties of different cross-section tubular boom are compared. The results show that TRAC cross-section has greater ratio of the area moment of inertia to packaged height than that of STEM and CTM section. However, the section thickness of TRAC is bigger than that of STEM and CTM, and the shear center doesn't coincide with the centroid, which lead to local bending and torsional buckling. A new cross-section XTEM is presented in this paper, which has two symmetry axes and the shear center coincides with the centroid. Finite element models of the four cross-section booms are built and the area moment of inertia is obtained respectively. The results also show that, with the same packaged height and the section thickness slightly increasing, the area moment of inertia in the two axial directions of XTEM have the increase of 77% and 35% to CTM, the increase of 30 and 6.7 times to STEM, respectively.

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    Design of Data Preprocessing System Based on Matlab for Triaxial Intersecting Induction Magnetometerormalsize
    CHEN Yu, HAN Xiao, WANG Yue, WANG Pengfei
    2017, 37 (5):  622-628.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2017.05.622
    Abstract ( 716 )   PDF (4788KB) ( 713 )   Save

    The induction magnetometer is an instrument for detecting AC magnetic field from 10Hz to 20kHz in space. The probes are three-axis orthogonal coordinated. Because of the uniqueness and diversity, there is no general ground testing software for specified satellite platforms or payloads at present. In order to test in detail before launch, a data preprocessing software system based on Matlab is designed for induction magnetometer. The software system integrates waveform, amplitude and phase display interfaces. Meanwhile, plenty of data processing functions are designed for the characteristics of wide frequency band and three-axis orthogonal, such as multi-resolution fast Fourier transform, moving average filtering, phase difference calculation. Experiments prove that it can meet the requirements of all-directional load testing and verification.

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    Design of a Wireless Spacecraft High Speed Data Network Based on IR-UWBormalsize
    ZHOU Li, XIE Yifang, AN Junshe, XIONG Weiming, XUE Changbin
    2017, 37 (5):  629-638.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2017.05.629
    Abstract ( 519 )   PDF (3428KB) ( 702 )   Save

    Impulse Radio Ultra-Wide Band (IR-UWB) is one of the promising techniques in the future aerospace application because of its distinguishing features of low power, high capacity, anti-multipath and simple structure. Design of a spacecraft high speed data network based on IR-UWB is presented. Design of the IR-UWB transceiver, the wireless communication protocol and the hardware and software of the nodes are described in detail. The transmitter is based on the physical mechanism of fast recovery of the Step Recovery Diodes (SRD), and the receiver is based on the tunnel diode circuit for impulse amplitude detection. Design of the communication protocol refers to the American military data bus standard MIL-STD-1553B protocol, which is a time division command/response multiplex data bus. The design is tested and verified by the FPGA. The test results indicate the system design is reasonable.

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    International Space Science Institute-Beijing, ISSI-BJ
    2017, 37 (5):  640-641. 
    Abstract ( 206 )   PDF (2770KB) ( 581 )   Save
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