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Table of Content

    15 September 2020, Volume 40 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Science Research and Utilization Planning of China's Space Station in Operation Period 2022-2032
    GU Yidong, GAO Ming, ZHAO Guangheng
    2020, 40 (5):  609-614.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.609
    Abstract ( 472 )   PDF (75KB) ( 223 )   Save
    The core module of China's Space Station (CSS) is scheduled to be launched around the end of 2020, and the experimental module I and II will be launched in the next two years. After on-orbit constructions, CSS will be transferred into an operation period over 10 years (2022-2032 and beyond) to continuously implement space science missions. At present, based on the project selection and research work in the ground development period of CSS, China is systematically making a utilization mission planning for the operation period, which focuses on the fields of aerospace medicine and human research, space life science and biotechnology, microgravity fluid physics, combustion science, materials science, fundamental physics, space astronomy and astrophysics, Earth science, space physics and space environment, space application technology, etc. In combination with the latest development trend of space science and technology, China will continue to update planning for science research and technology development, carry out project cultivation, payload R&D, and upgrade onboard and ground experiment supporting systems to achieve greater comprehensive benefits in science, technology, economy, and society.
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    China's Lunar and Deep Space Exploration Program for the Next Decade (2020-2030)
    XU Lin, PEI Zhaoyu, ZOU Yongliao, WANG Chi
    2020, 40 (5):  615-617.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.615
    Abstract ( 743 )   PDF (67KB) ( 376 )   Save
    China has carried out four unmanned missions to the Moon since it launched Chang'E-1, the first lunar orbiter in 2007. With the implementation of the Chang'E-5 mission this year, the three phases of the lunar exploration program, namely orbiting, landing and returning, have been completed. In the plan of follow-up unmanned lunar exploration missions, it is planned to establish an experimental lunar research station at the lunar south pole by 2030 through the implementation of several missions, laying a foundation for the establishment of practical lunar research station in the future. China successfully launched its first Mars probe on 23 July 2020, followed in future by an asteroid mission, second Mars mission, and a mission to explore Jupiter and its moons.
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    Progress and Prospects of the Strategic Priority Program on Space Science
    WANG Chi, SUN Lilin, FAN Quanlin, LI Chao, BAI Qingjiang
    2020, 40 (5):  618-625.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.618
    Abstract ( 326 )   PDF (3963KB) ( 118 )   Save
    In May 2018, the second phase of the Strategic Priority Program on Space Science (SPP II) was officially approved by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, in view of the significant scientific achievements of the first phase of the Strategic Priority Program on Space Science (SPP I) which includes 4 space science missions:the Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), ShiJian-10 (SJ-10), Quantum Experiments at Space Scale (QUESS) and Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Aiming to address fundamental scientific questions, SPP II focuses on two major themes:How the universe and life originate and evolve and What is the relationship between the solar system and human beings. In areas that Chinese scientists have advantages, new space science missions including Graviational wave high-energy Electromagnetic Counterpart All-sky Monitor (GECAM), the Advanced space-based Solar Observatory (ASO-S), the Einstein Probe (EP), and Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE) have been approved in the framework of SPP II. This paper presents the research highlights of the SPP I, introduces the recent progress of SPP II, and puts forward the prospects for future development.
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    Overview of the Latest Scientific Results of China's Lunar Exploration Program
    CHEN Yuesong, HAN Juanjuan, FAN Yu, ZOU Yongliao, WANG Chi
    2020, 40 (5):  626-642.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.626
    Abstract ( 286 )   PDF (58336KB) ( 94 )   Save
    China's Chang'E-4 probe successfully landed on 3 January 2019 in Von Kármán crater within the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin on the lunar far side. Based on the data acquired by the scientific payloads onboard the lander and the rover, the researchers obtained the related information such as the geologic and tectonic setting of the landing area, compositional characteristics of the landing surface materials, dielectric permittivity and density of the lunar soil. The experiments confirmed the existence of materials dominated by olivine and low-calcium pyroxene in the SPA basin on the lunar far side, which preliminary revealed the geological evolution history of the SPA basin and even that of the early time lunar crust, as well as the tectonic setting and formation mechanism of the materials in the lunar interior. The researchers also inves-tigated the particle radiation, Linear Energy Transaction (LET) spectrum, and so forth on the lunar surface. The low-frequency radio observations were carried out on the lunar far side for the first time as well. This article summarizes the latest scientific results in the past years, focusing on the Chang'E-4 mission. Key words CLEP, Chang'E-4, Scientific objectives, Scientific payloads, Scientific results
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    Progress of the Quantum Experiment Science Satellite (QUESS) Micius Project
    PAN Jianwei
    2020, 40 (5):  643-647.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.643
    Abstract ( 229 )   PDF (1560KB) ( 100 )   Save
    The Micius satellite was successfully launched on 16 August 2016, from Jiuquan, China, orbiting at an altitude of about 500 km. The main scientific goals, including satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution, satellite-based quantum entanglement distribution, ground-to-satellite quantum teleportation, and satellite relayed intercontinental quantum network, were achieved in 2017. As a starting point, the Micius satellite has become a platform for quantum science experiments at the space scale. Here, we introduce the latest experimental achievements (in 2018-2020) based on the Micius satellite.
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    SJ-10 Recoverable Satellite for Space Microgravity Experiments
    HU Wenrui, KANG Qi, DUAN Enkui, LONG Mian
    2020, 40 (5):  648-654.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.646
    Abstract ( 200 )   PDF (637KB) ( 77 )   Save
    SJ-10 is a recoverable scientific experiment satellite specially for the space experiments of microgravity physics science and space life science. This mission was officially started on 31 December 2012, and the satellite was launched on 6 April 2016. This paper introduces briefly the SJ-10 mission, the progress of SJ-10 engineering and the project constitution of sciences experiments onboard SJ-10. The purpose of this mission is to discover the law of matter movement and the rule of life activity that cannot be discovered on the ground due to the existence of gravity, and to know the acting mechanism on organisms by the complex radiation of space that cannot be simulated on the ground.
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    Progress Report on Insight-HXMT: China's First X-ray Astronomy Satellite
    ZHANG Shuangnan
    2020, 40 (5):  655-661.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.655
    Abstract ( 217 )   PDF (10564KB) ( 29 )   Save
    Insight-HXMT is China's first X-ray astronomy satellite. It was launched on 15 June 2017 and is currently in service smoothly. Insight-HXMT has been used to scan the Galactic plane repeatedly, making pointing observations to neutron stars and black holes, and monitor the whole sky continuously in the MeV band. Insight-HXMT is also very flexible in making ToO observations, with the response time from about 3 hours to within a day. So far more than 50 refereed publications have been made with data from its observations; many more publications have used the data or results of Insight-HXMT one way or another. The scientific impacts of Insight-HXMT have been growing rapidly since launch. We expect Insight-HXMT to continue to operate for several more years.
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    Current Status and Main Scientific Results of In-flight CSES Mission
    SHEN Xuhui, ZEREN Zhima, HUANG Jianping, YANG Yanyan, ZHAO Shufan, YAN Rui, ZHANG Zhenxia, LIU Dapeng, WANG Qiao, CHU Wei, LU Hengxin, XU Song, GUO Feng, TAN Qiao, LI Wenjing, ZHOU Na, SONG Fuxi
    2020, 40 (5):  662-678.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.662
    Abstract ( 422 )   PDF (23739KB) ( 36 )   Save
    The CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) is the electromagnetism satellite of China's Zhangheng mission which is planned to launch a series of microsatellites within next 10 years in order to monitor the electromagnetic environment, gravitational field. The CSES 01 probe (also called ZH-1) was launched successfully on 2 February 2018, from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre (China) and is expected to operate for 5 years in orbit. The second probe CSES 02 is going to be launched in 2022. The scientific objectives of CSES are to detect the electromagnetic field and waves, plasma and particles, for studying the seismic-associated disturbances. To meet the requirements of scientific objective, the satellite is designed to be in a sun-synchronous orbit with a high inclination of 97.4° at an altitude around 507 km. CSES carries nine scientific payloads including Search-coil magnetometer, Electric Field Detector, High precision Magnetometer, GNSS occultation Receiver, Plasma Analyzer, Langmuir Probe, two Energetic Particle Detectors (including an Italian one), and Tri-Band Transmitter. Up to now, CSES has been operating in orbit for 2 years with stable and reliable performance. By using all kinds of data acquired by CSES, we have undertaken a series of scientific researches in the field of global geomagnetic field re-building, the ionospheric variation environment, waves, and particle precipitations under disturbed space weather and earthquake activities, the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere coupling mechanism research and so on.
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    Recent Advances in Research of the Chinese Meridian Project
    WANG Chi, CHEN Zhiqing, XU Jiyao
    2020, 40 (5):  679-690.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.679
    Abstract ( 320 )   PDF (136KB) ( 96 )   Save
    The Chinese Meridian Project is a ground-based space environment monitoring facility in China. The first phase of the project has been put into formal operation since 2012 after 4-year's construction. It consists of 15 observatories located roughly along 120°E longitude and 30°N latitude, with each observatory equipped with multiple instruments to monitor space environment. Based on the huge observational data accumulated, significant scientific achievements have been made with more than 300 peer-reviewed journal papers published. In this report, scientific results from the past two years have been reviewed with topics covering fields of geomagnetic, atmosphere, ionosphere, and their responses to solar activities. The excellent achievements from the Phase I of Chinese Meridian Project lay a good foundation for Phase II, which has already been approved with the official kick-off of construction in November 2019. It will conceive an unprecedented contribution to global space weather community from China.
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    Taiji-1 Satellite Mission
    LUO Ziren, ZHANG Min, WU Yueliang
    2020, 40 (5):  691-692.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.691
    Abstract ( 306 )   PDF (261KB) ( 102 )   Save
    China's first satellite to conduct experiments on key technologies related to space-based gravitational wave detection, Taiji-1, has successfully completed its in-orbit tests, making a breakthrough in the country's gravitational wave detection. With the success of Taiji-1's in-orbit tests, the first goal of Chinese Academy of Science's three-step strategy to implement the Taiji program has been successfully achieved.
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    Development Progress of China's First Mars Exploration Mission: Its Scientific Objectives and Payloads
    JIA Yingzhuo, ZOU Yongliao, ZHU Yan, DU Qingguo FAN Yu, CHEN Yuesong, WANG Chi
    2020, 40 (5):  693-697.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.693
    Abstract ( 257 )   PDF (185KB) ( 91 )   Save
    China's first Mars exploration mission is scheduled to be launched in 2020. It aims not only to conduct global and comprehensive exploration of Mars by use of an orbiter but also to carry out in situ observation of key sites on Mars with a rover. This mission focuses on the following studies:topography, geomorphology, geological structure, soil characteristics, water-ice distribution, material composition, atmosphere and ionosphere, surface climate, environmental characteristics, Mars internal structure, and Martian magnetic field. It is comprised of an orbiter, a lander, and a rover equipped with 13 scientific payloads. This article will give an introduction to the mission including mission plan, scientific objectives, scientific payloads, and its recent development progress.
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    Progress on SVOM Satellite Development
    WEI Jianyan
    2020, 40 (5):  698-699.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.698
    Abstract ( 190 )   PDF (148KB) ( 101 )   Save
    SVOM (Space-based multiband astronomical Variable Objects Monitor) is a Chinese-French space mission dedicated to studying Gamma-Ray Bursts. The satellite has four instruments to detect and localize the prompt GRB emission and measure the evolution of the afterglow in the visible band and in X-rays, and a VHF communication system enabling the fast transmission of SVOM alerts to the ground. The ground segment includes an array of wide-angle cameras and two follow-up telescopes. It was planned to be in orbit in 2021, and now has to be delayed about six months because of COVID-19 epidemic.
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    Update on the ESA-CAS Joint Solar Wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE) Mission
    WANG Chi, BRANDUARDI-RAYMONT Graziella
    2020, 40 (5):  700-703.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.700
    Abstract ( 234 )   PDF (3345KB) ( 66 )   Save
    The SMILE (Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer) mission aims at deepening our understanding of the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth magnetosphere. It is the first time that ESA and CAS jointly select, design, implement, launch, and operate a space mission. The mission was adopted by CAS in November 2016 and by ESA in March 2019 with a target launch date by the end of 2023.
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    Status of the Advanced Space-based Solar Observatory
    GAN Weiqun
    2020, 40 (5):  704-706.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.704
    Abstract ( 230 )   PDF (54KB) ( 85 )   Save
    The Advanced Space-based Solar Observatory (ASO-S) was formally approved at the end of 2017. In the past two years, ASO-S underwent its official Phase-B and Phase-C studies. The Phase-B study was successfully accomplished by the end of April 2019, and the Phase-C study is being now undertaken until August 2020. Then the flight model is planned to finish within 16 months. Around the end of 2021, ASO-S will be ready in the launch state. We briefly summarize the history of ASO-S, the phase-B studies, and the phase-C studies.
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    Progress on CASEarth Satellite Development
    GUO Huadong, CHEN Hongyu, CHEN Liangfu, FU Bihong
    2020, 40 (5):  707-717.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.707
    Abstract ( 325 )   PDF (8675KB) ( 127 )   Save
    CASEarth satellite is the first space Earth science satellite produced by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The satellite has three payloads:high-definition Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (TIS), high-definition Glimmer Imager for Urbanization (GIU), and high-definition Multispectral Imager for Inshore (MII). These payloads are used to explore the urbanization level and residential layout, the coastal ecosystem, and new methods and approaches of environmental detection during night-time and even under conditions of polar aurora and provide scientific evidence for the refined depiction of human traces. The CASEarth satellite can provide space observation data for A Project on Big Earth Data Science Engineering as well as scientific and application studies inside and outside China.
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    Introduction to Chinese Meridian Project-Phase II
    WANG Chi, Chen Zhiqing, XU Jiyao
    2020, 40 (5):  718-722.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.718
    Abstract ( 333 )   PDF (9195KB) ( 77 )   Save
    The Chinese Meridian Project is a ground-based space environment monitoring network, which is constructed in two steps. The first step (Phase I) of the project consists of 15 observation stations located roughly along 120°E longitude and 30°N latitude. The second step (Phase II) of the project will additionally deploy 16 stations to better cover China's territory, and build a stereo monitoring capability to monitor the cause and effect of the space weather chain in the solar terrestrial system. Based on the existing two monitoring chains in Phase I, two more chains will be established along 100°E longitude and 40°N latitude, respectively, forming a double-cross network configuration. After the two-step construction, the whole project will run nearly 300 instruments deployed at 31 stations. Aside from standard instruments, quite a few innovative and powerful instruments will be developed, such as radioheliographs with a very wide frequency band, a 3-station incoherent scattering radar to make a 3D measurement of the ionosphere, and a helium lidar to measure atmosphere density up to an altitude of 1000 km.
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    International Meridian Circle Program
    LIU William, WANG Chi, SHEN Xuhui, WU Jian, BLANC Michel, YAN Yihua, FU Suiyan, YUE Xinan, LEI Jiuhou, GONG Wei, ZHANG Shaodong, ZHANG Qinghe, WANG Xin, YANG Jing, ZHANG Xiaoxin, GAO Jing, XU Jiyao, YANG Guotao, LI Hui, REN Liwen, YANG Fang
    2020, 40 (5):  723-725.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.723
    Abstract ( 272 )   PDF (417KB) ( 78 )   Save
    The Earth is buffered from the ferocious onslaught of the solar wind by a thin layer of matter known as the atmosphere and geospace. This layer absorbs energy from irradiance and outburst from the Sun, as well as from disasters, transient phenomena and anthropogenic emissions originated from Earth. Through complicated physics, the absorbed energy changes the atmospheric and geospace state and sometimes gets re-released to power extreme events such as space weather. Taking place globally, these complicated processes cannot be understood unless they are studied globally. The Chinese scientists have proposed the International Meridian Circle Program (IMCP) to meet this demand. By operating nearly 1000 instruments encompassing all latitudes along with the 120°E-60°W longitudes, IMCP aims, for the first time, to construct comprehensive 3D data representation of the atmosphere and geospace on a global scale and empower interdisciplinary research to tackle key questions related to Earth's environment and climate change.
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    Space Solar Physics in China
    GAN Weiqun
    2020, 40 (5):  726-728.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.726
    Abstract ( 228 )   PDF (90KB) ( 46 )   Save
    The activities of Chinese space solar physics in 2018-2020 are going on smoothly. Besides the missions of ASO-S and CHASE which are in the engineering phases, there are quite a number of projects which are in the pre-study stage (conception study) or have finished the pre-study stage, constituting a rich pond for the selection of next solar mission(s). This paper describes in brief the status of all these related projects.
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    China's Future Missions for Deep Space Exploration and Exoplanet Space Survey by 2030
    JI Jianghui, WANG Su
    2020, 40 (5):  729-731.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.729
    Abstract ( 483 )   PDF (56KB) ( 220 )   Save
    Four future missions for deep space exploration and future space-based exoplanet surveys on habitable planets by 2030 are scheduled to be launched. Two Mars exploration missions are designed to investigate geological structure, the material on Martian surface, and retrieve returned samples. The asteroids and main belt comet exploration is expected to explore two objects within 10 years. The small-body mission will aim to land on the asteroid and get samples return to Earth. The basic physical characteristics of the two objects will be obtained through the mission. The exploration of Jupiter system will characterize the environment of Jupiter and the four largest Moons and understand the atmosphere of Jupiter. In addition, we further introduce two space-based exoplanet survey by 2030, Miyin Program and Closeby Habitable Exoplanet Survey (CHES Mission). Miyin program aims to detect habitable exoplanets using interferometry, while CHES mission expects to discover habitable exoplanets orbiting FGK stars within 10 pc through astrometry. The above-mentioned missions are positively to achieve breakthroughs in the field of planetary science.
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    Research Progress of Interplanetary Physics in Mainland China
    ZHAO Xinhua, SHEN Chenglong, HE Jiansen, NING Hao
    2020, 40 (5):  732-777.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.732
    Abstract ( 265 )   PDF (573KB) ( 57 )   Save
    Significant progress has been made by Chinese scientists in research of interplanetary physics during the recent two years (2018-2020). These achievements are reflected at least in the following aspects:Activities in solar corona and lower solar atmosphere; solar wind and turbulence; filament/prominence, jets, flares, and radio bursts; active regions and solar eruptions; coronal mass ejections and their interplanetary counterparts; other interplanetary structures; space weather prediction methods; magnetic reconnection; Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical modeling; solar energetic particles, cosmic rays, and Forbush decreases; machine learning methods in space weather and other aspects. More than one hundred and forty papers in the academic journals have been published in these research directions. These fruitful achievements are obtained by Chinese scholars in solar physics and space physics either independently or through international collaborations. They greatly improve people's understanding of solar activities, solar eruptions, the corresponding space weather effects, and the Sun-Earth relations. Here we will give a very brief review on the research progress. However, it must be pointed out that this paper may not completely cover all achievements in this field due to our limited knowledge.
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    Magnetospheric Physics in China
    CAO Jinbin, YANG Junying
    2020, 40 (5):  778-855.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.778
    Abstract ( 289 )   PDF (795KB) ( 140 )   Save
    In the past two years, many progresses were made in Magnetospheric Physics by using the data of SuperMAG, Double Star Program, Cluster, THEMIS, RBSP, DMSP, DEMETER, NOAA, Van Allen probe, Swarm, MMS, ARTEMIS, MESSENGER, Fengyun, BeiDa etc., or by computer simulations. This paper briefly reviews these works based on papers selected from the 248 publications from January 2018 to December 2019. The subjects covered various sub-branches of Magnetospheric Physics, including geomagnetic storm, magnetospheric substorm, magnetic reconnection, solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction, radiation belt, ring current, whistler waves, plasmasphere, outer magnetosphere, magnetotail, planetary magnetosphere, and technique.
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    Advances in the Researches of the Middle and Upper Atmosphere in China
    CHEN Zeyu, CHEN Hongbin, XU Jiyao, HUANG Kaiming, XUE Xianghui, HU Dingzhu, CHEN Wen, YANG Guotao, TIAN Wenshou, HU Yongyun, XIA Yan
    2020, 40 (5):  856-874.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.856
    Abstract ( 207 )   PDF (191KB) ( 116 )   Save
    In this report we summarize the research results by Chinese scientists in 2018-2020. The focuses are placed on the researches of the middle and upper atmosphere, specifically the researches on atmospheric structure and composition, climate and chemistry-climate coupling and climate modelling, dynamics in particular those inducing the coupling of the atmospheric layers.
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    Development of New Capabilities Using Machine Learning for Space Weather Prediction
    LIU Siqing, CHEN Yanhong, LUO Bingxian, CUI Yanmei, ZHONG Qiuzhen, WANG Jingjing, YUAN Tianjiao, HU Qinghua, HUANG Xin, CHEN Hong
    2020, 40 (5):  875-883.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.875
    Abstract ( 241 )   PDF (9583KB) ( 38 )   Save
    With the development of space exploration and space environment measurements, the numerous observations of solar, solar wind, and near Earth space environment have been obtained in last 20 years. The accumulation of multiple data makes it possible to better use machine learning technique, which has achieved unforeseen results in industrial applications in last decades, for developing new approaches and models in space weather investigation and prediction. In this paper, the efforts on the forecasting methods for space weather indices, events, and parameters using machine learning are briefly introduced based on the study works in recent years. These investigations indicate that machine learning, especially deep learning technique can be used in automatic characteristic identification, solar eruption prediction, space weather forecasting for solar and geomagnetic indices, and modeling of space environment parameters.
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    Update on Fengyun Meteorological Satellite Program and Development
    ZHANG Peng, CHEN Lin, XIAN Di, XU Zhe, GUAN Min
    2020, 40 (5):  884-897.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.884
    Abstract ( 308 )   PDF (1765KB) ( 204 )   Save
    China began to develop its meteorological satellite program since 1969. With 50-years' growing, there are 17 Fengyun (FY) meteorological satellites launched successfully. At present, seven of them are in orbit to provide the operational service, including three polar orbiting meteorological satellites and four geostationary meteorological satellites. Since last COSPAR report, no new Fengyun satellite has been launched. The information of the on-orbit FY-2 series, FY-3 series, and FY-4 series has been updated. FY-3D and FY-2H satellites accomplished the commission test and transitioned into operation in 2018. FY-2E satellite completed its service to decommission in 2019. The web-based users and Direct Broadcasting (DB) users keep growing worldwide to require the Fengyun satellite data and products. A new Mobile Application Service has been launched to Fengyun users based on the cloud technology in 2018. In this report, the international and regional co-operations to facilitate the Fengyun user community have been addressed especially. To strengthen the data service in the Belt and Road countries, the Emergency Support Mechanism of Fengyun satellite (FY_ESM) has been established since 2018. Meanwhile, a Recalibrating 30-years' archived Fengyun satellite data project has been founded since 2018. This project targets to generate the Fundamental Climate Data Record (FCDR) as a space agency response to the Global Climate Observation System (GCOS). At last, the future Fengyun program up to 2025 has been introduced as well.
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    Ocean Observation from Haiyang Satellites
    LIN Mingsen, JIANG Xingwei
    2020, 40 (5):  898-907.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.898
    Abstract ( 214 )   PDF (51060KB) ( 35 )   Save
    In 2018, China successfully launched three new Haiyang (which means ocean in Chinese, referred to as HY) satellites which are an ocean color observation satellite HY-1C (operational), an ocean dynamics environment satellite HY-2B (operational) and the China-France ocean satellite CFOSAT (experimental). In 2019, all the three satellites had finished their commissioning phases and were declared operational. HY-2A satellite continues to operate in-orbit, and its operational status is basically normal. So in 2020, China has 4 Haiyang satellites in-orbit, China's ocean satellites enter into a new operational application phase. The operation of the ground application system of Chinese ocean satellites is stable. In 2019, Beijing, Hainan, Mudanjiang, and Hangzhou ocean satellite ground stations had received the data of HY-1C, HY-2A, HY-2B, and CFOSAT 5012 orbits and 26.46 TB data had been distributed to both domestic and international users. Chinese ocean satellite data has played an important role in marine disaster prevention and mitigation, development and management of marine resources, maintenance of marine rights and interests, marine environment protection, scientific researches, and blue economy development.
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    Progress of Earth Observation in China
    GUO Huadong, LIANG Dong, LIU Guang
    2020, 40 (5):  908-919.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.908
    Abstract ( 310 )   PDF (840KB) ( 162 )   Save
    China is expanding and sharing its capacity for Earth observation by developing sensors, platforms, and launch capabilities in tandem with growing lunar and deep space exploration. China is considering the Moon as a viable Earth observation platform to provide high-quality, planetary-scale data. The platform would produce consistent spatiotemporal data because of its long operational life and the geological stability of the Moon. China is also quickly improving its capabilities in processing and transforming Earth observation data into useful and practical information. Programs such as the Big Earth Data Science Engineering Program (CASEarth) provide opportunities to integrate data and develop "Big Earth Data" platforms to add value to data through analysis and integration. Such programs can offer products and services independently and in collaboration with international partners for data-driven decision support and policy development. With the rapid digital transformation of societies, and consequently increasing demand for big data and associated products, Digital Earth and the Digital Belt and Road Program (DBAR) allow Chinese experts to collaborate with international partners to integrate valuable Earth observation data in regional and global sustainable development.
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    Progress of Space Medicine Research in China
    DING Bai, LIU Zhaoxia, Lü Ke, LING Shukuan, LIU Yue, XU Zi, LI Yinghui
    2020, 40 (5):  920-927.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.920
    Abstract ( 321 )   PDF (132KB) ( 66 )   Save
    With the approaching of the Chinese Space Station (CSS) era, the focus of space medicine applications and related research has shifted to addressing the astronauts' health support in long-duration spaceflights, including nutrition, countermeasure against the physiological effects of weightlessness, medical monitoring and support, psychology status, etc., and accordingly the human experiments to simulate long-duration weightlessness have been carried out. Increasingly, basic research has been put forward in the key areas, such as space bone loss, cardiovascular dysfunction and the molecular mechanisms underlying radiobiological effects. Moreover, specific novel research fields, such as hypometabolism technology, were explored. The research projects in the field of space medicine experiment, as an important aspect of the Chinese Space Station's application, have been officially approved and launched.
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    Space Life Science of China
    MA Hong, CHEN Yu, REN Hao, LI Xiaoqiong, YANG Chunhua, LI Bo, HAN Chu, ZHANG Ying, LI Yujuan, LONG Mian, ZHUANG Fengyuan, DENG Yulin
    2020, 40 (5):  928-934.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.928
    Abstract ( 195 )   PDF (125KB) ( 51 )   Save
    In the past two years, China's space life science has made great progress. Space biomedical and life science programs have carried out ground-based research for the first batch of projects, and are preparing to carry out space-based experiments along with the construction of China's space station. And space life science payload of the space station completed the development of positive samples. Thus, with the development of lunar exploration and Mars exploration projects, astrobiology research has also made a lot of basic achievements. On the basis of summarizing the development of space life science in China, this paper mainly introduces the important progress of payload technology and life science research.
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    Progress Update in Space Cell Mechano-biological Coupling
    LONG Mian, SUN Shujin, LI Ning, Lü Dongyuan, GAO Yuxin
    2020, 40 (5):  935-936.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.935
    Abstract ( 306 )   PDF (45KB) ( 50 )   Save
    Recent progresses in 2018-2019 from space experiments onboard SJ-10 recoverable satellite and on parabolic flight were summarized, mainly focusing on cell mechano-biological coupling under microgravity. In the meantime, technical pre-research and experimental system design for the biomechanics research platform on China Space Station was carried out and updated.
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    Progress of Research on Origins of Life in China
    ZHAO Yufen, HUA Yuejin, ZHANG Hongyu, HE Yujian, ZHU Ting, LIU Yan, WU Li
    2020, 40 (5):  937-945.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.937
    Abstract ( 198 )   PDF (1720KB) ( 68 )   Save
    The development of Chinese space science and technology plays a great role in promoting the researches in the field of the origin of life. With the multidisciplinary cooperation, there are fruitful achievements in this research field obtained over the past two years. This report summarizes the major progress of the basic researches about the origin of life in China during 2018-2020.
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    Space Materials Science in China: I. Experiment Studies under Microgravity
    ZHANG Xingwang, YIN Zhigang, YU Jianding, YUAN Zhangfu, ZHAO Jiuzhou, LUO Xinghong, PAN Mingxiang
    2020, 40 (5):  946-949.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.946
    Abstract ( 299 )   PDF (79KB) ( 74 )   Save
    The virtual absence of gravity-dependent phenomena in microgravity allows an in-depth understanding of fundamental events that are normally obscured and therefore are difficult to study quantitatively on Earth. Of particular interest is that the low-gravity environment aboard space provides a unique platform to synthesize alloys of semiconductors with homogeneous composition distributions, on both the macroscopic and microscopic scales, due to the much reduced buoyancy-driven convection. On the other hand, the easy realization of detached solidification in microgravity suppresses the formation of defects such as dislocations and twins, and thereby the crystallographic perfection is greatly increased. Moreover, the microgravity condition offers the possibilities to elucidate the liquid/solid interfacial structures, as well as clarify the microstructure evolution path of the metal alloys (or composites) during the solidification process. Motivated by these facts, growths of compound semiconductors and metal alloys were carried out under microgravity by using the drop tube, or on the scientific platforms of Tiangong-2 and SJ-10. The following illustrates the main results.
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    Space Materials Science in China: II. Ground-based Researches and Academic Activities
    PAN Mingxiang, WANG Weihua, FAN Shuqian, ZHANG Qi, PAN Xiuhong, DENG Weijie, HU Liang, WEI Bingbo, WANG Haipeng, YIN Zhigang, FANG Jinghong, YU Jianding, ZHANG Xingwang, YUAN Zhangfu, JIANG Hongxiang, ZHAO Jiuzhou, WANG Gong
    2020, 40 (5):  950-955.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.950
    Abstract ( 251 )   PDF (94KB) ( 74 )   Save
    Activities of space materials science research in China have been continuously supported by two main national programs. One is the China Space Station (CSS) program since 1992, and the other is the Strategic Priority Program (SPP) on Space Science since 2011. In CSS plan in 2019, eleven space materials science experimental projects were officially approved for execution during the construction of the space station. In the SPP Phase II launched in 2018, seven pre-research projects are deployed as the first batch in 2018, and one concept study project in 2019. These pre-research projects will be cultivated as candidates for future selection as space experiment projects on the recovery of scientific experimental satellites in the future. A new apparatus of electrostatic levitation system for ground-based research of space materials science and rapid solidification research has been developed under the support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China. In order to promote domestic academic activities and to enhance the advancement of space materials science in China, the Space Materials Science and Technology Division belong to the Chinese Materials Research Society was established in 2019. We also organized scientists to write five review papers on space materials science as a special topic published in the journal Scientia Sinica to provide valuable scientific and technical references for Chinese researchers.
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    Space Debris Research Progress of China
    LIU Jing, JIANG Hai, YANG Xu, LI Fen, ZHAO Nanying
    2020, 40 (5):  956-961.  doi: 10.11728/cjss2020.05.956
    Abstract ( 278 )   PDF (3143KB) ( 174 )   Save
    The rapid increase of space debris population has posed serious threaten to the safety of human space activities and became a global issue. How to enhance the technical capabilities of space debris threat coping ability is of great significance to the sustainable development of space activities, the further development, and utilization of outer space. In this paper, we describe space debris research progress of China on observation, collision avoidance, protection, mitigation, regulation, and standard during the last twenty years, and look forward to the future development direction of space debris.
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