Volume 39 Issue 1
Jan.  2019
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
ZHANG C, SHEN C, YANG Y Y, DUNLOP M W, TI S, RUSSELL C T, LÜHR H, BURCH J L, LINDQVIST P A, TORBERT R B, FRⅡS-CHRISTENSEN E. Near Earth Vortices Driving of Field Aligned Currents Based on Magnetosphere Multiscale and Swarm Observations[J]. Chinese Journal of Space Science, 2019, 39(1): 9-17. doi: 10.11728/cjss2019.01.09
Citation: ZHANG C, SHEN C, YANG Y Y, DUNLOP M W, TI S, RUSSELL C T, LÜHR H, BURCH J L, LINDQVIST P A, TORBERT R B, FRⅡS-CHRISTENSEN E. Near Earth Vortices Driving of Field Aligned Currents Based on Magnetosphere Multiscale and Swarm Observations[J]. Chinese Journal of Space Science, 2019, 39(1): 9-17. doi: 10.11728/cjss2019.01.09

Near Earth Vortices Driving of Field Aligned Currents Based on Magnetosphere Multiscale and Swarm Observations

doi: 10.11728/cjss2019.01.09

Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (41874190, 41231066)

More Information
  • Author Bio:

    SHEN C,shenchao@hit.edu.cn

  • Received Date: 2017-11-30
  • Rev Recd Date: 2018-06-22
  • Publish Date: 2019-01-15
  • A long-standing mystery in the study of Field-Aligned Currents (FACs) has been that:how the currents are generated and why they appear to be much stronger at high altitudes than in the ionosphere.Here we present two events of magnetotail FACs observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale Spacecraft (MMS) on 1st July and 14th July 2016,to show how the Substorm Current Wedges (SCW) were formed.The results show that particles were transferred heading towards the Earth during the expansion phase of substorms. The azimuthal flow formed clockwise (counter-clockwise) vortex-like motion,and then generated downward (upward) FACs on the tailward/poleward side of the distorted field with opposite vorticity on their Earthward/equatorward side.We also analyzed the Region 1 FACs observed by the Earth Explorer Swarm spacecraft on 1st July 2016 and found that they were associated with FACs observed by MMS,although differing by a factor of 10.This difference suggests that either there was the closure of the currents at altitudes above 500 km or the currents were not strictly parallel to B and closed at longitudes away from where they were generated.


  • loading
  • [1]
    BIRKELAND K. The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 1902-1903[M]. Oslo:Nabu Press, 1908
    FOSTER J C, MAURICEJ S T P, ABREU V J. Joule heating at high latitudes[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 1983, 88(A6):4885-4896. DOI: 10.1029/JA088iA06p04885
    LUIA T Y. Current disruption in the Earth's magnetosphere:Observations and models[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 1996, 101(A6):13067-13088. DOI: 10.1029/96JA00079
    LU G, BAKER D N, MCPHERRON R L, et al. Global energy deposition during the January 1997 magnetic cloud event[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 1998, 103(A6):11685-11694. DOI: 10.1029/98JA00897
    IIJIMA T. Field-aligned currents in geospace:Substance and significance[J]. Wash. Am. Geophys. Union:Geophys. Monog., 2000, 118. DOI: 10.1029/GM118p0107
    STERN D P. The origins of Birkeland currents[J]. Rev. Geophys., 1983, 21(1):125-138. DOI: 10.1029/RG021i001-p00125
    CHUN F K, RUSSELL C T. Field-aligned currents in the inner magnetosphere:Control by geomagnetic activity[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 1997, 102(A2):2261-2270. DOI:10. 1029/96JA01819
    HAERENDELG. Disruption, ballooning or auroral avalanche-On the cause of substorms, in proceedings of the international conference on substorms (ICS-1)[J]. Eur. Space Agency Spec. Publ., 1992, ESA SP-335:417-420
    SHIOKAWA K, BAUMJOHANN W, HAERENDEL G. Braking of high-speed flows in the near-Earth tail[J]. Geophys. Res. Lett., 1997, 24(10):1179-1182. DOI: 10.1029/97GL01062
    HASEGAWA A, SATO T. Generation of field aligned current during substorm[J]. Dyn. Magnetos., 1979, 529542. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-009-9519-228
    VASYLIUNAS V M. Fundamentals of current description[J]. Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 1984, 28:63-66
    KEILING A, ANGELOPOULOS V, RUNOV A, et al. Substorm current wedge driven by plasma flow vortices:THEMIS observations[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 2009, 114(A1):A00C22. DOI: 10.1029/2009JA014114
    BIRN J, HESSEM, HAERENDELG, et al. Flow braking and the substorm current wedge[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 1999, 104(A9):19895-19903. DOI: 10.1029/1999JA900173
    BIRN J, RAEDER J, WANG Y L, et al. On the propagation of bubbles in the geomagnetic tail[J]. Ann. Geophys., 2004, 22:1773-1786. DOI: 10.5194/angeo-22-1773-2004
    WANG C, SUN T R, GUO X C, et al. Case study of nightside magnetospheric magnetic field response to interplanetary shocks[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 2010, 115(A10). DOI: 10.1029/2010JA015451
    XING X, LYONS L R, NISHIMURAY, et al. Near-Earth plasma sheet azimuthal pressure gradient and associated auroral development soon before substorm onset[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 2011, 116(A7). DOI: 10.1029/2011JA-016539
    YAO Z H, PU Z Y, FU S Y, et al. Mechanism of substorm current wedge formation:THEMIS observations[J]. Geophys. Res. Lett., 2012, 39(13). DOI: 10.1029/2012-GL052055
    SHI Q Q, HARTINGER M D, ANGELOPOULOS V, et al. Solar wind pressure pulse-driven magnetospheric vortices and their global consequences[J]. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 2014, 119(6):4274-4280. DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019551
    TIAN A M, SHEN X C, SHI Q Q, et al. Dayside magnetospheric and ionospheric responses to solar wind pressure increase:multispacecraft and ground observations[J]. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 2016, 121(11):10813-10830. DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022459
    ZHAO H Y, SHEN X C, TANG B B, et al. Magnetospheric vortices and their global effect after a solar wind dynamic pressure decrease[J]. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 2016, 121(2):1071-1077. DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021646
    ZMUDA A J, MARTIN J H, HEURING F T. Transverse magnetic disturbances at 1100 kilometers in the auroral region[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 1966, 71(21):5033-5045. DOI: 10.1029/JZ071i021p05033
    ZMUDA A J, HEURING F T, MARTIN J H. Dayside magnetic disturbances at 1100 kilometers in the auroral oval[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 1967, 72(3):1115-1117. DOI: 10.1029/JZ072i003p01115
    SHIOKAWA K, BAUMJOHANN W, HAERENDEL G, et al. High-speed ion flow, substorm current wedge, and multiple Pi2 pulsations[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 1998, 103(A3):4491-4507. DOI: 10.1029/97JA01680
    CAO J B, YAN Chunxiao, DUNLOP Malcolm, et al. Geomagnetic signatures of current wedge produced by fast flows in a plasma sheet[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 2010, 115(A8):A08205. DOI: 10.1029/2009JA014891
    SLAVIN J A, LE G, STRANGEWAY R J, et al. Space technology 5 multi-point measurements of nearEarth magnetic fields:Initial results[J]. Geophys. Res. Lett., 2008, 35(2):63-66. DOI: 10.1029/2007GL031728
    MARCHAUDON A, CERISIER J C, DUNLOP M W, et al. Shape, size, velocity and field-aligned currents of dayside plasma injections:A multi-altitude study[J]. Ann. Geophys., 2009, 27:1251-1266. DOI: 10.5194/angeo-27-1251-2009
    BURCH J L, MOORET E, TORBERTR B, et al. Magnetospheric multiscale overview and science objectives[J].Space Sci. Rev., 2015, 199(1-4):5-21. DOI: 10.1007/s112-14-015-0164-9
    FRIIS-CHRISTENSEN E, LÜHR H, KNUDSEN D, et al. Swarm-An Earth observation mission investigating Geospace[J]. Adv. Space. Res., 2008, 41(1):210-216. DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2006.10.008
    SHEN C, LI X, DUNLOP M, et al. Analyses on the geometrical structure of magnetic field in the current sheet based on cluster measurements[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 2003, 108(A5):1168. DOI: 10.1029/2002JA009612
    SHEN C, LI X, DUNLOP M, et al. Magnetic field rotation analysis and the applications[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 2007, 112(A6):A06211. DOI: 10.1029/2005JA011584
    RUSSELL C T, ANDERSON B J, BAUMJOHANN W, et al. The magnetospheric multiscale magnetometers[J]. Space Sci. Rev., 2016, 199(1-4):189-256. DOI: 10.1007/s11214-014-0057-3
    BOROVSKY J E, BONNELL J. The DC electrical coupling of flow vortices and flow channels in the magnetosphere to the resistive ionosphere[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 2001, 106(A12):28967-28994. DOI: 10.1029/1999JA000245
    WANG C P, LYONS L R, WOLF R A, et al. Plasma sheet PV5/3 and NV and associated plasma and energy transport for different convection strengths and AE levels[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 2009, 114(A9):A00D02. DOI: 10.1029/2008JA013849
    TORBERT R B, RUSSELL C T, MAGNES W, et al. The FIELDS instrument suite on MMS:Scientific objectives, measurements, and data products[J]. Space Sci. Rev., 2016, 199(1-4):105-135, DOI: 10.1007/s11214-014-0109-8
    ERGUN R E, TUCKER S, WESTFALL J, et al. The axial double probe and fields signal processing for the MMS mission[J]. Space Sci. Rev., 2016, 199(1-4):167-188. DOI: 10.1007/s11214-014-0115-x
    LINDQVIST P A, OLSSON G, TORBERT R B, et al. The spin-plane double probe electric field instrument for MMS[J]. Space Sci. Rev., 2016, 199(1/2/3/4):137-165. DOI: 10.1007/s11214-014-0116-9
    KEPKO L, MCPHERRON R L, AMMO, et al. Substorm current wedge revisited[J]. Space Sci. Rev., 2015, 190(1-4):1-46. DOI: 10.1007/s11214-014-0124-9
    HONES Jr E W, ASBRIDGE J R, BAME S J, et al. Magnetotail plasma flow measured by Vela 4A[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 1973, 78(25):5463-5476. DOI: 10.1029/JA-078i025p05463
    MIYASHITA Y, MACHIDA S, KAMIDE Y, et al. A state-of-the-art picture of substorm-associated evolution of the near-Earth magnetotail obtained from superposed epoch analysis[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 2009, 114(A1). DOI: 10.1029/2008JA013225
    MCPHERRON R L, HSU T S, KISSINGER J, et al. Characteristics of plasma flows at the inner edge of the plasma sheet[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 2011, 116(A5). DOI: 10.1029/2010JA015923
    LUI A T Y, SPANSWICK E, DONOVAN E F, et al. A transient narrow poleward extrusion from the diffuse aurora and the concurrent magnetotail activity[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 2010, 115(A10). DOI: 10.1029/2010JA015449
    IIJIMA T, POTEMRA T A. The amplitude distribution of field-aligned currents at northern high latitudes observed by Triad[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 1976, 81:2165-2174. DOI: 10.1029/JA081i013p02165
    IIJIMA T, POTEMRA T A. Large-scale characteristics of field-aligned currents associated with substorms[J]. J. Geophys. Res., 1978, 83:599-615. DOI: 10.1029/JA083-iA02p00599
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article Views(721) PDF Downloads(455) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint