摘要: Submillimeter interferometry has the potential to image supermassive black holes on event horizon scales, providing tests of the theory of general relativity and increasing our understanding of black hole accretion processes. The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) performs these observations from the ground, and its main imaging targets are Sagittarius A* in the Galactic Center and the black hole at the center of the M87 galaxy. However, the EHT is fundamentally limited in its performance by atmospheric effects and sparse terrestrial (u,v)-coverage (Fourier sampling of the image). The scientific interest in quantitative studies of the horizon size and shape of these black holes has motivated studies into using space interferometry which is free of these limitations. Angular resolution considerations and interstellar scattering effects push the desired observing frequency to bands above 500 GHz. This paper presents the requirements for meeting these science goals, describes the concept of interferometry from Polar or Equatorial Medium Earth Orbits (PECMEO) which we dub the Event Horizon Imager (EHI), and utilizes suitable space technology heritage. In this concept, two or three satellites orbit at slightly different orbital radii, resulting in a dense and uniform spiral-shaped (u,v)-coverage over time. The local oscillator signals are shared via an inter-satellite link, and the data streams are correlated on-board before final processing on the ground. Inter-satellite metrology and satellite positioning are extensively employed to facilitate the knowledge of the instrument position vector, and its time derivative. The European space heritage usable for both the front ends and the antenna technology of such an instrument is investigated. Current and future sensors for the required inter-satellite metrology are listed. Intended performance estimates and simulation results are given.
摘要: 频间偏差（Inter Frequency Bias，IFB）通常会给电离层延迟的解算带来误差.目前从电离层延迟中消除频间偏差的方法是基于GPS双频观测数据建立垂直电离层模型，利用卡尔曼滤波实时估算电离层模型系数和频间偏差.然而滤波过程中的测量噪声协方差矩阵没有考虑系统观测量之间的相关性，这会导致滤波模型不准确，进而影响最后求解的电离层延迟的准确性.本文选取了美国19个参考站的GPS双频观测数据，利用卡尔曼滤波实时估算电离层模型系数以及频间偏差.在滤波过程中，通过将先验频间偏差的估计方差引入测量噪声方差，实现对测量噪声协方差矩阵的优化.计算结果表明，优化后得到的卫星频间偏差与欧洲定轨中心（Center for Orbit Determination in Europe，CODE）得到的频间偏差更接近.将优化后的电离层延迟代入伪距解算，得到的位置误差的标准差在东向和天顶向分别下降了12.5%和15.4%，天顶向误差平均值下降了17.6%，定位精度得到提高.