Azolla is an important biological component of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), because it can supply O2 and absorb CO2 from the environment, and can be used as a fresh vegetable by the astronauts. Developing Azolla wet culture device for supplying O2 to set up non-living components on the ground aims to meet the needs of simulation research. The structure characteristics and working principles of the device and its key component are introduced in this paper. By structure and function designation of medium in Azolla wet culture plate, infiltration pipeline of capillary action is set inner store and conserve water stroma layer to keep the overall surface of medium wet but no obvious water always, which creates beneficial conditions for rooting and fixing, nutrient absorption, growth and reproduction. The main technical parameters of water pipe line and intermittent circulatory periods of closed Azolla culture medium transmission and distribution system are determined in the hydraulic pressure test. The results of machine output test show that when the interlayer spacing is 125\,mm, Azolla wet culture area of overall unit is 6.3 m2, using ultra-high brightness white LED as artificial light source, Azolla surface light intensity is 6000~6500 lx, the energy consumption is 152Wm2, Azolla yield, the amount of O2-release and CO2-absorption of overall unit will be increased by a wide margin, and every performance index is in accordance with the design requirement.