2014 Vol. 34, No. 5

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Strategic Priority Program on Space Science
Wu Ji, Sun Lilin
2014, 34(5): 505-515. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.505
In 1957, the launch of the first artificial satellite ushered in a new era for modern space science.The past 50 years' developments in China's space science have witnessed many major missions, and substantial progress has been achieved in space science study, exploration technology as well as experiment technology. Strategic Priority Program on Space Science was officially started in 2011. Through both self-developed space science missions and those with international cooperation,it is expected that the innovative breakthroughs will be realized, leapfrog development of related high-tech will be achieved to establish the important strategic status of space science in national development. To sum up, the implementation of the Strategic Priority Program on Space Science will definitely promote the rapid development of China's space science endeavor, making contributions to China's development and the progress of human civilization.
China’s Deep-space Exploration to 2030
Zou Yongliao, Li Wei, Ouyang Ziyuan
2014, 34(5): 516-517. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.516
Abstract(2544) PDF 61KB(2094)
Focusing on the key scientific questions of deep space exploration which include the origin and evolution of the solar system and its planets, disastrous impact on the Earth by the solar activities and small bodies, extraterrestrial life, this paper put forward a propose about the roadmap and scientific objectives of China's Deep-space Exploration before 2030.
Science Researches of Chinese Manned Space Flight
Gu Yidong, Gao Ming, Zhao Guangheng, Liu Yingchun, Jin Zhaojun
2014, 34(5): 518-524. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.518
Abstract(1578) PDF 6392KB(5101)
With the complete success of the 2nd stage of Chinese Manned Space Program (CMSP), several science researches have been performed on Tiangong-1 experimental spacelab, which was docked with three Shenzhou spaceships one after another. The China's real spacelab, Tiangong-2 will be launched in 2015, docked with a Shenzhou spaceship soon. After six months, it will be docked with the first Chinese cargo ship (Tianzhou-1). More space science researches, involving with space biology, fluid physics, fundamental physics, materials science, Earth science, astronomy and space environmental science, will be operated on Tiangong-2 spacelab, and crewed and cargo spaceships. Furthermore, the considerable large-scale space utilization of Shina's Space Station is planned. The research fields include yet not limited to space medicine and physiology, space life science and biotechnology, fluid physics and combustion in microgravity, space material science, and fundamental physics in microgravity, space astronomy, Earth science, space physics and space environment utilization, technology demonstration.
Scientific Progress in China’s Lunar Exploration Program
Xu Lin, Ouyang Ziyuan
2014, 34(5): 525-534. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.525
Abstract(1470) PDF 7409KB(2357)
Chang'E-1, the first lunar mission in China, was successfully launched on October 24, 2007, which opened the prelude of China's Lunar Exploration Program. Later on, the Chang'E-2 and Chang'E-3 satellites were successfully launched in 2010 and 2013, respectively. In order to achieve the science objectives, various payloads boarded the spacecraft. The scientific data from these instruments were received by Beijing and Kunming ground stations simultaneously. Up to now, about 5.628 Terabytes of raw data were received totally. A series of research results has been achieved. This paper presents a brief introduction to the main scientific results and latest progress from Chang'E-3 mission.
Recent Advances in Chinese Meridian Project
Wang Chi
2014, 34(5): 535-543. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.535
Abstract(1081) PDF 7143KB(2181)
To develop an understanding of near-Earth space's response to solar activities and the coupling among different layers in geospace, China has initiated a ground base program to monitor China's geospace environment called the Meridian Space Weather Monitoring Project (Chinese Meridian Project). The effort consists of a chain of 15 ground-based observatories located roughly along 120°E longitude and 30°N latitude. Each observatory is equipped with multiple instruments to measure key parameters such as the baseline and time-varying geomagnetic field, as well as the middle and upper atmosphere and ionosphere from about 20 to 1000 kilometers. This project started collecting data in 2012. We will give a brief introduction to the Chinese Meridian Project, and present recent scientific results mainly in ionospheric and atmospheric studies.
Status of the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope Project
LU Fangjun
2014, 34(5): 544-546. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.544
The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) is China's first astronomical satellite. It will perform a broad band (1-250keV) scan survey and do pointed observations of X-ray sources to study their spectra and multi-wavelength temporal properties. The pre-flight models of the satellites have been finished, and the flight models are in production. The expected launch date of HXMT is in late 2015.
Quantum Science Satellite
Pan Jianwei
2014, 34(5): 547-549. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.547
Abstract(2525) PDF 1081KB(4666)
Quantum Science Satellite is one of the first five space science missions, slated for launch in the framework of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Strategic Priority Research Program on space science. The project aims to establish a space platform with long-distance satellite and ground quantum channel, and carry out a series of tests about fundamental quantum principles and protocols in space-based large scale. The satellite will be launched at Jiuquan and on orbit for 2 years. The orbit will be circular and Sun-synchronous with an altitude of 600km. It crosses the descending node at 00:00LT. The satellite is under early prototype development currently.
Dark Matter Particle Explorer:The First Chinese Cosmic Ray and Hard γ-ray Detector in Space
Chang Jin
2014, 34(5): 550-557. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.550
Abstract(2311) PDF 5663KB(3411)
The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) mission is one of the five scientific space science missions within the framework of the Strategic Pioneer Program on Space Science of the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS) approved in 2011. The main scientific objective of DAMPE is to detect electrons and photons in the range of 5GeV-10TeV with unprecedented energy resolution (1.5% at 100GeV) in order to identify possible Dark Matter (DM) signatures. It will also measure the flux of nuclei up to above 500TeV with excellent energy resolution (40% at 800GeV), which will bring new insights to the origin and propagation high energy cosmic rays. With its excellent photon detection capability, the DAMPE mission is well placed for new discoveries in high energy-ray astronomy as well.
The Experimental Satellite on Electromagnetism Monitoring
Shen Xuhui
2014, 34(5): 558-562. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.558
Abstract(927) PDF 253KB(2236)
The Experimental Satellite on Electromagnetism Monitoring (ESEM) was proposed in 2003 and proved in 2013 after 10-years' scientific demonstration. The ESEM mission was proposed to be the first satellite of space-based geophysical fields observation system in China with a lot of application prospects in earthquake science, geophysics, space sciences and so on. And coincide with the mission objectives, the satellite decides to use the Circular Sun Synchronous Orbit with an altitude of 507km and descending node time at 14:00LT. The payload assemble includes 8 instruments, Search-Coil Magnetometer, Electric Field Detector, High precision Magnetometer, GNSS occupation Receiver, Plasma Analyzer, Langmuir Probe, Energetic Particle Detector, and Three-frequency Transmitter. According to the planned schedule, the satellite is due to be launched in 2016-2017 and will be onboard operated for 5 years.
Space Solar Physics in 2012?2014
Gan Weiqun
2014, 34(5): 563-564. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.563
Abstract(1037) PDF 67KB(1874)
The main activities of Chinese space solar physics in 2012-2014 include: to continue studying the mid and long-term (2016-2030) plan of Chinese space solar physics; to arrange a group of pre-study projects of space solar physics; to initiate and continue a few solar mission-level projects. This paper summarizes all these activities briefly.
Research Advances of Solar Corona and Interplanetary Physics in China:2012-2014
Zhao Xinhua, Wang Yuming, Yan Yihua, Chen Yao, Cheng Xin, He Jiansen, Qin Gang
2014, 34(5): 565-604. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.565
Abstract(1046) PDF 432KB(5564)
Solar transients and their related interplanetary counterparts have severe effects on the space environments of the Earth. Therefore, the research of solar corona and interplanetary physics has become the focus of study for both solar and space scientists. Considerable progress has been achieved in these aspects by the solar and space physics community of China during 2012-2014, which will be given in this report. The brief report summarizes the research advances of solar corona and interplanetary physics into the following parts: solar wind origin and turbulence, coronal waves and seismology, solar eruptions, solar energetic particle and galactic cosmic ray, magnetic reconnection, Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models and their applications, waves and structures in solar wind, propagation of ICMEs/shocks and their arrival time predictions. These research achievements have been achieved by Chinese solar and space scientists independently or via international collaborations.
Magnetospheric Physics in China:2012-2014
Cao Jinbin, Yang Junying
2014, 34(5): 605-647. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.605
Abstract(1257) PDF 458KB(2491)
In the past two years, many progresses have been made in magnetospheric physics by using the data of Double Star Program, Cluster, THEMIS and RBSP missions, or by computer simulations. This paper briefly reviews these works based on papers selected from the 126 publications from March 2012 to March 2014. The subjects cover various sub-branches of magnetospheric physics, including geomagnetic storm, magnetospheric substorm and magnetic reconnection.
Some Investigations on the Ionosphere during 2012-2014 in China
Liu Libo, Chen Yiding, Le Huijun, Liu Jing, Wan Weixing
2014, 34(5): 648-668. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.648
In this national biannual report, we will outline some recent progresses in ionospheric studies conducted by Chinese scientists since 2012. The mentioned aspects include: the solar activity control of the ionosphere; couplings between the ionosphere, lower atmosphere and plasmasphere; ionospheric climatology and disturbances; ionospheric irregularities and scintillation; models, data assimilation and simulations; unusual phenomena of the ionosphere; possible seismic signatures presented in ionospheric observations, and some methodology progresses. These progresses will enhance our ability to observe the ionosphere, provide more reasonable understanding about the states of the ionosphere and underlying fundamental processes, and stimulate ionospheric modeling, forecasting and related applications.
Advances in the Researches of the Middle and Upper Atmosphere in China in 2012-2014
Chen Zeyu, Chen Hongbin, Xu Jiyao, Bian Jianchun, Qie Xiushu, LÜ Daren, Chen Wen, Ren Rongcai, Zhang Shaodong, DouXiankang, Li Tao, Hu Xiong, Hu Yongyun, Tian Wenshou
2014, 34(5): 669-687. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.669
Abstract(878) PDF 243KB(1446)
In this report we summarize the research results by Chinese scientists in 2012-2014. The focuses are placed on the researches of the middle and upper atmosphere, specifically the researches related to ground-based observation capability development, dynamical processes, the property of circulation and chemistry-climate coupling of the middle atmospheric layers.
Development of Operational Space Weather Prediction Models
Gong Jiancun, Liu Siqing, Shi Liqin, Luo Bingxian, Chen Yanhong, Huang Wengeng, Cao Jinbin, Xie Lun, Lei Jiuhou, Tang Wei-wei
2014, 34(5): 688-702. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.688
In this report, we summarize the needs of space weather models, and recommend that developing operational prediction models, rather than transitioning from research to operation, is a more feasible and critical way for space weather services in the near future. Operational models for solar wind speed, geomagnetic indices, magnetopause, plasma sheet energetic electrons, inner boundary of ion plasma sheet, energetic electrons in outer radiation belt, and thermospheric density at low Earth orbit, have been developed and will be introduced briefly here. Their applications made a big progress in space weather services during the past two years in China.
FY-3 Meteorological Satellites and the Applications
Tang Yunqiu, Zhang Jiashen, Wang Jingsong
2014, 34(5): 703-709. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.703
Abstract(1103) PDF 9491KB(2520)
FY-3 is the second generation polar-orbiting meteorological satellite of China. The first satellite named FY-3A of this series was launched on 27 May 2008. The first operational satellite named FY-3C of this series was launched on 23 September, 2013. The new generation satellites are to provide three-dimensional, quantitative, multi-spectral global remote sensing data under all weather conditions, which will greatly help the operational numerical weather prediction, global climate change research, climate diagnostics and prediction, and natural disaster monitoring. They will also provide help for many other fields such as agriculture, forestry, oceanography and hydrology. With the abovementioned capability, the FY-3 satellites can make valuable contributions to improving weather forecasts, global natural-disaster and environmental monitoring.
Ocean Observation from Haiyang Satellites:2012-2014
Jiang Xingwei, Lin Mingsen
2014, 34(5): 710-720. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.710
During 2012 and 2014, China has two Haiyang (which means ocean in Chinese, referred to as HY) satellites operating normally in space which are HY-1B and HY-2A. HY-1B is an ocean color environment satellite which was launched in April 2007 to observe global ocean color and sea surface temperature, and HY-2A is an ocean dynamic environment satellite which was launched in August 2011 to obtain global marine dynamic environment parameters including sea surface height, significant wave height, ocean wind vectors, etc. Ocean observation data provided by HY-1B and HY-2A have been widely used by both domestic and international users in extensive areas such as ocean environment protection, ocean disaster prevention and reduction, marine environment forecast, ocean resource development and management, ocean investigations and scientific researches, etc.
2012-2014 China’s Earth Observation and Earth Science Development
Guo Huadong, Ma Jianwen, Xiao Han, Lu Feng, Liang Dong, Bi Haiyun, Wang Fangjian
2014, 34(5): 721-732. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.721
Abstract(913) PDF 155KB(2274)
Human beings are now facing global and regional sustainable development challenges. In China, Earth observation data play a fundamental role in Earth system science research. The support given by Earth observation data is required by many studies, including those on Earth's limited natural resources, the rapid development of economic and social needs, global change, extreme events, food security, water resources, sustainable economic and urban development, and emergency response. Application operation systems in many ministries and departments in China have entered a stage of sustainable development, and the State Key Project of High-Resolution Earth Observation Systems has been progressing since 2006. Earth observation technology in China has entered a period of rapid development.
Advances of Microgravity Sciences
Kang Qi, Long Mian, Zhang Yuanzhong, Duan Li, Zhao Jianfu, Xu Shenhua, Wang Shangfeng
2014, 34(5): 733-739. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.733
Abstract(706) PDF 105KB(2169)
Advances of microgravity sciences in China are introduced. The research works include ground-based study and space experiments. In the recent years, the main means still are theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, ground-based experiment, and short-time microgravity experiments of drop tower. Besides, many space experiment projects are arranged. SJ-10 recoverable satellite will carry out 19 scientific experiment projects. Nine of them are for microgravity Sciences. The other ways for space microgravity experiment are with the help of Chinese Shenzhou spacecraft, Chinese Tiangong space laboratory, and Chinese space station in the near future. The Chinese space station will become main platform of Chinese microgravity sciences experiment in space.
National Report on Space Medicine Progress in 2012-2014
Li Yinghui, Zhang Xiaoyou, Wan Yumin, Ding Bai, Liu Zhaoxia, Ling Shukuan, Bai Yanqiang, Chen Shanguang, Liu Shujuan
2014, 34(5): 740-746. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.740
Abstract(821) PDF 117KB(1555)
The application of manned spaceflight makes a great impetus on the development of space medicine. With the deep growth of Chinese manned space, our national space medicine has attained great achievements. In this paper, the basic research of Space Medicine and its application in China during 2012-2014 were briefly reviewed.
Space Life Science of China in 2013
Lei Runhong, Zhou Guangming, Ma Hong, Zhuang Fengyuan, Deng Yulin
2014, 34(5): 747-756. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.747
Abstract(839) PDF 148KB(1894)
In the past two years, space life science research in China is characterized by a wide area of basic researches for providing foundation for the future China Space Station. The effect of microgravity and radiation was further studied from physiology phenomena to the level of bio-molecule mechanisms. Chinese space life science is maturing in a new era of comprehensive development. Here, we review and summarize researches on space life sciences which were contributed by Chinese scientists.
Microgravity Material Research in China:2012-2014
Wang Yuren, Dai Guoliang, Wang Jing, Feng Shaobo, Luo Xinghong, Zhou Yanfei, Chen Lidong, Yu Yude
2014, 34(5): 757-764. doi: 10.11728/cjss2014.05.757
During 2012-2014, the main research activities from microgravity material research were focused on, which include study of microgravityeffects on collagen fibrillogenesis and HAP crystallization, microgravity experiments using drop tube, and research of thermoelectric materials for space. This paper summarizes all these activities.