2018 Vol. 38, No. 5

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Progress of Strategic Priority Program on Space Science
2018, 38(5): 585-590. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.585
The Strategic Priority Program on Space Science in 2011-2017 (hereafter referred to as SPP I), which officially went ahead in 2011, marks that a new chapter of Chinese space endeavor has been opened. The 4 satellites, Wukong/DAMPE, SJ-10, Mozi/QUESS and Insight/HXMT, has been achieving promising scientific results since their launch, e.g., Wukong directly detected a break in the teraelectronvolt cosmic-ray spectrum of electrons and positrons. To enable the sustainable development of China's space science endeavor, the Strategic Priority Program Ⅱ on Space Science (hereafter referred to as SPP Ⅱ) was officially approved in late 2017. SPP Ⅱ includes 4 satellites-EP, ASO-S, SMILE and GECAM, Intensive Study of Future Space Science Missions, Advanced Research of Space Science Missions and Payloads, Space Science Mission Concept Research, and Data Analysis Research. Dedicated to exploring the unknown, the program is aiming to address scientific questions such as the origin and evolution of the universe and life, search for extraterrestrial life, and the impact of the Sun and the solar system on Earth and human development. Chinese space science community is committed to contributing to the progress of human civilization.
China's Planning for Deep Space Exploration and Lunar Exploration before 2030
XU Lin, ZOU Yongliao, JIA Yingzhuo
2018, 38(5): 591-592. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.591
Abstract(1058) PDF 70KB(1041)
The current lunar exploration has changed from a single scientific exploration to science and resource utilization. On the basis of the previous lunar exploration, Chinese scientists and technical experts have proposed an overall plan to preliminarily build a lunar research station on the lunar South Pole by several missions before 2035, exploring of the moon, as well as the use of lunar platforms and in-site utilization of resources. In addition, China will also explore Mars, asteroids and Jupiter and its moons. This paper briefly introduces the ideas of Chinese scientists and technical experts on the lunar and deep space exploration.
Development of China's New Generation Launch Vehicles
QIN Tong, XU Lijie, LI Pingqi, LIU Jiajia
2018, 38(5): 593-597. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.593
In the past 2 years, China's new generation launch vehicles, such as the LM-6, LM-7, LM-5 and LM-11 launch vehicles, successfully made the maiden flights, which marked Chinese Long March series launch vehicles having many achievements such as the diameter of launch vehicles increased from 3.35 m to 5 m and the toxic propellants replaced with non-toxic and pollution-free propellants. This paper will introduce the features and new technology of LM-7, LM-5 and LM-11 launch vehicles, which are China's new typical generation Launch vehicles.
Latest Scientific Results of China's Lunar Exploration Program
XU Lin, ZOU Yongliao, QIN Lang
2018, 38(5): 598-603. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.598
Through the implementation of China's Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP), a large amount of data has been acquired. This paper will present the latest scientific results based on these data involving the composition, topography, space environment, subsurface structure of the Moon, and asteroid exploration and moon-based observations, etc.
Progress of the Quantum Experiment Science Satellite (QUESS) Micius Project
PAN Jianwei
2018, 38(5): 604-609. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.604
By using satellites, ultra-long-distance quantum communication and tests of quantum foundations could be achieved at a global scale. The Quantum Experiment Science Satellite (QUESS) in China, also called Micius, one of the scientific satellite programs in the Strategic Priority Program on space science, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, was launched on 16 August 2016. There are totally 4 scientific payloads. We give a brief overview of the quantum experiment science satellite project and present most recent science results. The main scientific goal of the quantum experiment science satellite was achieved in 2017. Here, we introduce the latest achievements in satellite-based quantum communication and large-scale tests of quantum foundations obtained by Micius.
Dark Matter Particle Explorer and Its First Results
2018, 38(5): 610-614. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.610
The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is China's first astronomical satellite dedicated to the indirect detection of dark matter particles and the study of high-energy astrophysics. It can measure high-energy electrons and gamma-rays up to 10 TeV with unprecedentedly high energy resolution and low background. Cosmic ray nuclei up to 100 TeV can also be measured. DAMPE was launched on December 17, 2015, and has been operating smoothly in space for more than two years since then. The first results about the precise measurements of the electron plus positron spectrum between 25 GeV and 4.6 TeV have been reported.
Science Research of Microgravity Satellite SJ-10
HU Wenrui, KANG Qi
2018, 38(5): 615-622. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.615
The program SJ-10, one of the scientific satellite programs in the Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, was launched on April 6, 2016. There are totally 19 scientific payloads, a multi-function furnace for 8 material researches and three-dimensional cell cultures for the neural stem cell and the hematopoietic stem cell respectively. The recoverable satellite consists mainly of two capsules:a recoverable capsule was recovered on 18 April 2016, with all payloads of life science, the multi-function furnace and the payload for measurement of Soret Coefficients of Crude Oil (SCCO); and an un-recoverable capsule continued to work in additional 3 days with all other physics payloads. The experiments were operated via teleoperations, and all experimental data were received by the ground station in real time. The data and recoverable samples are analyzed by the experiment teams of the program.
Status of the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (Insight-HXMT) Project
LU Fangjun, ZHANG Shuangnan
2018, 38(5): 623-626. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.623
The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) was launched at Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center on June 15, 2017, and was named as Insight-HXMT after the launch. Now all the instruments work properly in space, dozens of sources have been observed, and some early scientific results have been published. The nominal lifetime of Insight-HXMT is 4 years.
TanSat Mission Achievements: from Scientific Driving to Preliminary Observations
LIU Yi, WANG Jing, YAO Lu, CHEN Xi, CAI Zhaonan, YANG Dongxu, YIN Zengshan, GU Songyan, TIAN Longfei, LU Naimeng, LÜ Daren
2018, 38(5): 627-639. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.627
The Chinese global carbon dioxide monitoring satellite (TanSat) was successfully launched in December 2016 and has completed its on-orbit tests and calibration. TanSat aims to measure the atmospheric Carbon Dioxide column-averaged dry air mole fractions (XCO2) with a precision of 4 ppm at the regional scale, and further to derive the CO2 global and regional fluxes. Progress toward these objectives is reviewed and the first scientific results from TanSat measurements are presented. During the design phase, Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) on TanSat measurements performed prior to launch measurements using a nadir and a glint alternative mode when considering the balance of stable measurements and reduces the flux uncertainty (64%). The constellation measurements of two satellites indicate an extra 10% improvement in flux inversion if the satellite measurements have no bias and similar precision. The TanSat on-orbit test indicates that the instrument is stable and beginning to produce XCO2 products. The preliminary TanSat measurements have been validated with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) measurements and have inter-compared with OCO-2 measurements in an overlap measurement.
Recent Advances in Observation and Research of the Chinese Meridian Project
2018, 38(5): 640-649. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.640
Abstract(669) PDF 165KB(1641)
The Chinese Meridian Space Weather Monitoring Project (Meridian Project) is a ground-based geospace monitoring chain in China. It consists of 15 ground-based observation stations located roughly along 120°E longitude and 30°N latitude. In recent two years, using data from the Meridian Project, significant progress has been made in space weather and space physics research. These advances are mainly in four aspects:regional characteristics of space environment above China or along 120°E meridian line, coupling between space spheres at different heights and different physical processes, space weather disturbance and its propagation along the meridian chain, and space weather effects on ground technical facilities.
Scientific Objectives and Payloads of Chinese First Mars Exploration
JIA Yingzhuo, FAN Yu, ZOU Yongliao
2018, 38(5): 650-655. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.650
Abstract(988) PDF 556KB(2154)
China plans to implement the first Mars exploration mission in 2020. It will conduct global and comprehensive exploration of Mars and high precision and fine resolution detection of key areas on Mars through orbiting, landing and roving. The scientific objectives include studying the Martian morphology and geological structure characteristics, studying the soil characteristics and the water-ice distribution on the Martian surface, studying the material composition on the Martian surface, studying the atmosphere ionosphere and surface climate and environmental characteristics of Mars, studying the physical field and internal structure of Mars and the Martian magnetic field characteristics. The mission equips 12 scientific payloads to achieve these scientific objectives. This paper mainly introduces the scientific objectives, exploration task, and scientific payloads.
Brief Introduction about the SVOM Mission
WEI Jianyan
2018, 38(5): 656-656. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.656
SVOM is a mission dedicated for studying γ-Ray Bursts, and will also be a powerful target-ofopportunity observatory for the whole astronomy community. The mission has been approved jointly by both Chinese and French space agencies. It is planned to be in the orbit in 2021 with an altitude ≤ 600 km and an inclination ≤ 30°.
Progress of Solar Wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE) Mission
2018, 38(5): 657-661. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.657
SMILE (Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer) mission is a joint ESA-CAS space science project. The working orbit is a 19 Re 5000 km HEO with 4 scientific instruments:Soft X-ray Imager(SXI), Ultra-Violet Imager (UVI), Magnetometer (MAG) and Light Ion Analyzer (LIA). SMILE aims to understand the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere through the images of SXI and UVI and in-situ measurement from LIA and MAG. After the kick-off in 2016, the SMILE project went to Phase A study. The mission adoption is scheduled for November 2018, with a target launch date in 2022-2023. In this paper, the background of the mission, scientific objectives, the design and characteristics of scientific instruments and the mission outline will be introduced in details.
Space Solar Physics in China
GAN Weiqun, FAN Quanlin
2018, 38(5): 662-664. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.662
The activities of Chinese space solar physics in 2016-2018 can be divided into two categories:prestudy projects and mission-level projects. Both projects were undertaken smoothly. Especially the ASO-S, after several years' promotion, finally got formal approval at the end of 2017. This paper describes in brief the status of all related projects.
Interplanetary Physics in Mainland China
ZHAO Xinhua, ZHANG Min, WANG Yuming, HE Jiansen, NING Hao, QIN Gang
2018, 38(5): 665-693. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.665
Abstract(512) PDF 348KB(1693)
During the past two years (2016-2018), great achievements have been made in the Chinese research of interplanetary physics, with nearly 100 papers published in the academic journals. The achievements are including but not limited to the following topics:solar corona; solar wind and turbulence; filament/prominence and jets; solar flare; radio bursts; particle acceleration at coronal shocks; magnetic flux ropes; instability; instrument; Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their interplanetary counterparts; Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical modeling; solar energetic particles and cosmic rays. The progress further improves our understanding of the eruptions of solar activities, their evolutions and propagations in the heliosphere, and final geoeffects on our Earth. These results were achieved by the Chinese solar and space scientists independently or via international collaborations. This paper will give a brief review of these achievements.
Magnetospheric Physics in China
CAO Jinbin, YANG Junying
2018, 38(5): 694-762. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.694
In the past two years, much progress has been made in magnetospheric physics by using the data of Double Star Program, Cluster, THEMIS, RBSP, Swarm, MMS, ARTEMIS, MESSENGER missions etc., or by computer simulations. This paper briefly reviews these works based on papers selected from the 227 publications from January 2016 to December 2017. The subjects cover most sub-branches of magnetospheric physics, including geomagnetic storm, magnetospheric substorm, magnetic reconnection, solar wind-magnetosphereionosphere interaction, radiation belt, plasmasphere, outer magnetosphere, magnetotail, geomagnetic field, auroras, and currents.
Advances in the Researches of the Middle and Upper Atmosphere in China
CHEN Zeyu, CHEN Hongbin, XU Jiyao, LÜ Daren, ZHANG Shaodong, XUE Xianghui, TIAN Wenshou, LIU Renqiang, CHEN Wen, HU Yongyun, WANG Rui, HU Dingzhu, HU Xiong, YANG Guotao, GONG Yun, LU Gaopeng
2018, 38(5): 763-780. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.763
In this paper we summarize the research results by Chinese scientists in 2016-2018. The focuses are placed on the researches of the middle and upper atmosphere, specifically the researches associated with groundbased observation capability development, dynamical processes, and properties of circulation and chemistryclimate coupling of the middle atmospheric layers.
Space Weather Service for Chinese Space Science Satellites
LIU Siqing, ZHONG Qiuzhen, GONG Jiancun, SHI Liqin, CHEN Dong, MIAO Juan, CAI Yanxia, BAI Meng, MA Wenzhen, LI Zhitao, LIU Fanghua, CHEN Yanhong
2018, 38(5): 781-787. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.781
Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science has gained remarkable achievements. Space Environment Prediction Center (SEPC) affiliated with the National Space Science Center (NSSC) has been providing space weather services and helps secure space missions. Presently, SEPC is capable to offer a variety of space weather services covering many phases of space science missions including planning, design, launch, and orbital operation. The service packages consist of space weather forecasts, warnings, and effect analysis that can be utilized to avoid potential space weather hazard or reduce the damage caused by space storms, space radiation exposure for example. Extensive solar storms that occurred over Chinese Ghost Festival (CGF) in September 2017 led to a large enhancement of the solar energetic particle flux at 1 AU, which affected the near Earth radiation environment and brought great threat to orbiting satellites. Based on the space weather service by SEPC, satellite ground support groups collaborating with the space Tracking, Telemetering and Command system (TT&C) team were able to take immediate measures to react to the CGF solar storm event.
Recent Progress of Fengyun Meteorology Satellites
2018, 38(5): 788-796. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.788
After nearly 50 years of development, Fengyun (FY) satellite ushered in its best moment. China has become one of the three countries or units in the world (China, USA, and EU) that maintain both polar orbit and geostationary orbit satellites operationally. Up to now, there are 17 Fengyun (FY) satellites that have been launched successfully since 1988. There are two FY polar orbital satellites and four FY geostationary orbit satellites operate in the space to provide a huge amount of the earth observation data to the user communities. The FY satellite data has been applied not only in the meteorological but also in agriculture, hydraulic engineering, environmental, education, scientific research and other fields. More recently, three meteorological satellites have been launched within the past two years. They are FY-4A on 11 December 2016, FY-3D on 15 November 2017 and FY-2H on 5 June 2018. This paper introduces the current status of FY meteorological satellites and data service. The updates of the latest three satellites have been addressed. The characteristics of their payloads on-boarding have been specified in details and the benefit fields have been anticipated separately.
Progress of Earth Observation in China
GUO Huadong, LIU Guang, LIANG Dong, ZHANG Lu, XIAO Han
2018, 38(5): 797-809. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.797
Sustainability is the current theme of global development, and for China, it is not only an opportunity but also a challenge. In 2016, the Paris Agreement on climate change was adopted, addressing the need to limit the rise of global temperatures. The United Nations (UN) has set Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to transform our world in terms of closely linking human well-being, economic prosperity, and healthy environments. Sustainable development requires the support of spatial information and objective evaluation, and the capability of macroscopic, rapid, accurate Earth observation techniques plays an important role in sustainable development. Recently, Earth observation technologies are developing rapidly in China, where scientists are building coordinated, comprehensive and sustainable Earth observation systems for global monitoring programs. Recent efforts include the Digital Belt and Road Program (DBAR) and comparative studies of the "three poles". This and other researches will provide powerful support for solving problems such as global change and environmental degradation.
Manipulation of Colloidal Droplets in Space and the Instability of Thermocapillary Convection in Large Prandtl Number Liquid Bridge in Microgravity
WANG Yuren, DUAN Li, KANG Qi, LAN Ding, LI Weibing
2018, 38(5): 810-813. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.810
In 2016 and 2017, SJ-10 and TG-2 satellites were launched. In this short paper, we report recent progress on the studies of manipulation of colloidal droplets and instability of thermocapillary convection in large Prandtl number liquid bridge that based on the space experiments boarding SJ-10 and TG-2 satellites, separately. It was shown that the colloidal droplets can be successfully formed and manipulated in microgravity through the patterned substrates. In another aspect, the coffee-ring effect was observed at the first time in space. For the studies of the instability of thermocapillary convection in large Prandtl number liquid bridge in microgravity, our experiments in TG-2 broadened the way of such kind of study and abundant experimental results are emerging.
National Report on Space Medicine Progress
LI Yinghui, LI Weigang, DING Bai, WU Dawei, LIU Zhaoxia, HE Li, ZHOU Wanlong, XU Zi
2018, 38(5): 814-819. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.814
The development of Chinese manned space engineering has a great role in promoting the progress of Chinese space medicine. With the accelerated implementation of Chinese Space Station Program, China's space medicine has made fruitful achievements over the past three years. This report summarizes the major progress of Chinese space medicine in terms of basic research and space applications from 2016 to 2018.
Space Life Science of China
MA Hong, REN Hao, LI Xiaoqiong, YANG Chunhua, CHEN Yu, WANG Rui, YING Zhang, WANG Changyong, ZHOU Jin, LI Hong, JIANG Xiaoxia, ZHANG Fengzhi, HAO Tong, ZHU Huimin, DONG Xiaohui, ZHENG Huiqiong, WANG Lihua, SUN Weining, TONG Guanghui, ZHENG Weibo, ZHANG Tao, LONG Mian, LIU Hong, ZHUANG Fengyuan, DENG Yulin
2018, 38(5): 820-828. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.820
With the human space exploration activities, space life science is an emerging interdiscipline, which covers a wide range of researches. Based on our country's manned space station and recoverable satellite science experimental platform, the development of space life science research is very important to acquire new knowledge or new technological innovation, to give further services to the human space exploration activities, to improve the national economic and social development. Both ground-based and flight applied studies were continuously performed in the previous 2 years. Here, we review and summarize the researches on space life sciences contributed by Chinese scientists.
Materials Experiment on Tiangong-2 Space Laboratory
LI Xiangyang, LU Ye, MENG Xiangjian, WANG Jianlu, WANG Reng, CHEN Lidong, HUA Zile, LI Xiaoya, SHI Jianlin, LIU Jinfeng, XU Guisheng, WEI Bingbo, XIE Wenjun, YIN Zhigang, ZHANG Xingwang, JIANG Hongxiang, LI Hong, LUO Xinghong, ZHANG Haifeng, ZHAO Jiuzhou, WANG Binbin, PAN Mingxiang
2018, 38(5): 829-835. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.829
During the China's Tiangong-2 (TG-2) flight mission, the experiments of 18 kinds of material samples were conducted in space by using a Multiple Materials Processing Furnace (MMPF) mounted in the orbital module of the TG-2 space laboratory. After the experiments of 12 kinds of samples of the first and second batches were completed successfully, astronauts packed and brought them back to the ground by ShenzhouⅡ spacecraft. By studying processing and formation on semiconductor and optoelectronics materials, metal alloys and metastable materials, functional single-crystal, micro-and nano-composite materials encapsulated in sample ampoules both in space and on Earth, we expect to explore some physical and chemical processes and mechanism of the materials formation that are normally obscured and therefore are difficult to study quantitatively on the ground due to the gravity-induced convection, to obtain the processing and synthesis technology for preparing high quality materials, and lead to the improvement and development of materials processing techniques on Earth, and also develop the experiment device and comprehensive ability for materials experiment in microgravity environment. This report briefly introduces the main points of each research work and preliminary comparative analysis results of 12 samples carried out by scientists undertaking research task.
Solidification and Crystal Growth on the SJ-10 Recoverable Scientific Experiment Satellite
YIN Zhigang, ZHANG Xingwang, WU Jinling, LI Xiaoya, YU Jianding, YUAN Zhangfu
2018, 38(5): 836-838. doi: 10.11728/cjss2018.05.836
The low-gravity environment aboard the space provides a unique platform for understanding crystal-growth-related phenomena that are masked by gravity on the Earth and for exploring new crystal growth techniques. We have characterized the wetting behavior of metal alloys and carried out melt growth of compound semiconductors under the support of materials science program in the SJ-10 recoverable satellite. We found that interfacial reaction plays a significant role in the interfacial evolution of Sn-based alloys. Detached growth of InAsSb was realized under microgravity, whereas during the terrestrial experiment the crystal and the crucible wall contact with each other. Moreover, the suppression of buoyancy-driven convection results in a more uniform composition distribution in the InGaSb and Bi2Te3-based semiconductor alloys.