2010 Vol. 30, No. 6

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Research on precise design of the Mars probe ballistic trajectory
Gao Fei
2010, 30(6): 519-523. doi: 10.11728/cjss2010.06.519
Abstract(2523) PDF 499KB(1127)
This paper studies the problems of precise design of the Mars probe ballistic trajectory. A fast differential correction algorithm is given. The model of the relationship between the difference of the independent and dependent variables is formulated using the two-body equations, by which the partial derivatives matrix can easily be calculated. Using the impact parameter B as mid variables, the algorithm is designed to be a two-layer iterative procedure, which can notably reduce the times of orbit propagation computations. Taking the 2018 Mars probe opportunity as an example, the algorithm is demonstrated and verified. The result proved that, using the initial value got by the Patched-Conic approach, only 6~9 orbit propagation procedures are needed to find a precise orbit. The numerical results are verified using STK (Satellite Tool Kit).
Orbit Design for Approaching Multiple Spacecrafts Repeatedly
Fu Xiaofeng, Wang Wei, Xi Xiaoning
2010, 30(6): 524-531. doi: 10.11728/cjss2010.06.524
Abstract(2068) PDF 565KB(1153)
The orbit design for single spacecraft approaching multiple spacecrafts more than one time is discussed in the paper, based on the result of orbit design for single approaching multiple spacecrafts once. The technique of determining approaching domain, which is established from the two-body approaching orbit, and the approach extent evaluation, which can be used to orbit design of approaching multiple spacecrafts repeatedly, are presented in the paper. Based on three types of orbit adjustment, three operators with different computation complexity are constructed to generate the new approaching orbits, and the scale of their corresponding approaching domain and the distribution of the optimal approaching orbit are analyzed. The improved simulated annealing algorithm is employed in the paper to solve the optimal approaching orbit. At last, the simulation experiment demonstrates the validity of the orbit design algorithm.
Space Object Orbit Prediction Based on Spaceborne Radar
Liu Bo, Li Daojing, Yin Jianfeng, Qiao Ming
2010, 30(6): 532-539. doi: 10.11728/cjss2010.06.532
Abstract(2258) PDF 608KB(1085)
Method to calculate a space target orbital elements using its position and velocity parameters acquired by spaceborne radar is discussed in this paper. The initial orbit determination is realized consequently. The impact of the measurement errors in the radar coordinate system upon the object's orbital elements in the conventional celestial coordinate system is also analyzed. One solution of the encounter problem of two space objects is given. The Space Station's orbit is used in the simulation part. The encounter of the space station and an object within a week is predicted by the simulation. The orbit forecast error is given.
Research on Transfer Trajectory Correction Maneuvers for Libration Point Missions
Li Mingtao, Zheng Jianhua
2010, 30(6): 540-546. doi: 10.11728/cjss2010.06.540
Abstract(2096) PDF 552KB(1099)
Libration points play an important role in deep space exploration, due to the fact that they are ideal locations for spacecrafts with special purposes. Since there are always inevitable injection errors in the launch process, transfer trajectory correction maneuvers must be considered for libration point missions. From the view point of engineering development, firstly, transfer trajectory corrections sequence was determined on the basis of the experience of the past libration point missions, and the error models were concluded by summarizing previous studies of both home and abroad; then, the transfer trajectory correction problem was transformed into the transfer trajectory design problem and solved by the differential correction method. Simulation results show that the algorithm is very effective. For transfer trajectory with the flight time of 110 days in the Sun-Earth system, only 78.0 m/s of maneuver velocity was needed to keep final position error below 66.1 km on the confidence level of 95 %.
Circular Formation Design for LL-SST
Chen Wenwen, Shao Xiaowei, Duan Dengping
2010, 30(6): 547-553. doi: 10.11728/cjss2010.06.547
Abstract(2011) PDF 738KB(908)
The tremendous advances made by GRACE have led to an interest in launching a follow-up mission with better performance. To improve the ranging performance, a new formation is developed for gravity measurement from low-low satellite to satellite tracking. Firstly, orbit element is used to describe the relative motion between two satellites and give a formation parameter. Then, in order to keep formation stable under Earth oblateness, a formation design method is given which has taken into account of J2 and J3 perturbation. The initial orbit element is computed for the two satellites. At last, a numerical simulation is proposed. The result indicates that the formation meets the demand of improvement for gravity measurement, which can be more stable than the formation designed by reckoning on only J2 perturbation, and there are 99.980 %, 99.976 %, 99.710 % less excursion in three directions.
Processing and Arrangement of Atmospheric Observation Data by Earth-based Planet Occultation
Mao Xiaofen, Han Tingting, Li Lei, Zhang Sujun, Hong Zhenjie
2010, 30(6): 554-561. doi: 10.11728/cjss2010.06.554
Abstract(2045) PDF 625KB(1236)
The technique of planet occultation is one of the most effective methods in detecting Martian atmosphere and ionosphere. Changes in frequency, phase, amplitude and other physical quantities of radio signal from spacecraft, caused by passing through the atmosphere and ionosphere of the planet, were observed in rising and descending planet occultation events. The profiles of the atmosphere, density, temperature and pressure of the neutral atmosphere, and the electron density profile of the ionosphere can be obtained by using some inversion methods. In Chinese YH-1 Mars exploration mission, Earth-based planetary atmosphere occultation is an important scientific research assignment, and observation data arrangement is the first step of the inversion process. This paper presents the data processing of the Earth-based Martian atmosphere occultation processing system, and introduces the structure and function of the observation data arrangement module in detail, including time system transformation, ephemeris interpolation, coordinate system conversion, signal time delay correction and establishing occultation plane. Using our algorithm, some experimental results are generated by using data of MEX Radio Science from NASA Planetary Data System and data of MEX orbit, Earth and Mars ephemeris from MEX SPICE.
Fast Data Processing Algorithm of the Retarding Potential Analyzer for Electric Propulsion Plume Diagnoses
Zhou Bin, Zhao Hua, Li Lei
2010, 30(6): 562-566. doi: 10.11728/cjss2010.06.562
Abstract(1981) PDF 524KB(904)
This paper presents a data processing algorithm for the Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA) to retrieve real time parameters of single ion for the electric propulsion plume diagnoses. By analyzing characteristics of response curves of RPA under different conditions, a statistical method is established to derive particle temperature and density through the U-I measurements. A numerical experiment is carried out to simulate an onboard observation with specific requirements on the measurement. Results show that the averaged error in derived ion density is 6.62 %, while the averaged error in ion temperature is 7.75 %. The processing time of one curve is 0.5 s by using the 12 MHz 80C31 microprocessor.
Simulation of GPS/LEO Radio Occultation Based on Satellite Tool Kit
Fu Jun, Qian Shan, Zhang Shifeng, Cai Hong
2010, 30(6): 567-572. doi: 10.11728/cjss2010.06.567
Abstract(2700) PDF 584KB(1350)
High precision of GPS/LEO Radio Occultation (RO) technique in atmospheric profile retrievals is achieved. There are a few of GPS/LEO RO projects abroad at present, but related in-depth experiment had not been done in China, which restricted the development of domestic RO technique greatly. Research method of GPS/LEO radio occultation based on Satellite Tool Kit (STK) is presented, and then condition of RO occurrence and formula of calculating position of tangent point are addressed according to principle of GPS/LEO radio occultation. With the criterion process of RO having been simulated by STK, the occultation data is obtained. Index of atmosphere refractivity is gained by inversion according to known atmosphere model based on the assumption of the spherical symmetric atmosphere. It indicated a better precision of inversion data through the comparison between atmosphere model and inversion data, and the feasibility of simulation of GPS/LEO RO experiment by STK is validated.
Effect Analysis of Observations and Satellites Clock Bias on Convergence Behavior in PPP
Zheng Zuoya, Dang Yamin, Lu Xiushan, Yang Fanlin, Guo Jinyun
2010, 30(6): 573-578. doi: 10.11728/cjss2010.06.573
Abstract(2036) PDF 542KB(1045)
In GPS Precise Point Positioning (PPP), besides precise positioning, the convergence time and stability are important items in GPS kinematic PPP. There are many factors which may affect it, such as the quality of GPS observation, sampling intervals, parameters estimation model, satellite geometry distribution and accuracy requirement and so on. The effect of different sampling intervals of observations, Satellites Clock Bias (SCB), and different positioning precision on convergence time of kinematic PPP is discussed deeply in this paper. Taking GPS observations from twelve GPS reference stations in Shanghai GPS network as an example, we analyzed the relationship of sampling intervals, positioning precision and convergence time. The convergence time of different sampling intervals is analyzed statistically. The results of the analysis are given in the conclusions.
Research on X-ray Pulsars/SINS Integrated Navigation
Sun Shouming, Zheng Wei, Tang Guojian
2010, 30(6): 579-583. doi: 10.11728/cjss2010.06.579
Abstract(2247) PDF 489KB(1141)
X-ray pulsars navigation is a new celestial navigation method, the principle of which is steady, credible and free from the limits of the near earth space. But its navigation precision is poor whyen it is used in orbital maneuver. For this problem, X-ray pulsars navigation/SINS integrated navigation system is proposed and testified by simulation in this paper. Results shows that the navigation precision of this new navigation system is preferable even during the orbital maneuver, and the drift of navigation error of SINS is well controlled. The new navigation system extends the application of X-ray pulsars navigation and lays a theory foundation to the engineering realization of X-ray pulsars navigation.
Mosaic of Lunar Image From CCD Stereo Camera Onboard Chang'E-1 Orbitor
Wang Jingran, Chen Shengbo, Cui Tengfei
2010, 30(6): 584-588. doi: 10.11728/cjss2010.06.584
Abstract(2294) PDF 540KB(1479)
In view of the image particularity of stereo camera onboard Chang'E-1 orbitor, the projection method was selected to complete the lunar nadir images mosaic of Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15 landing sites. Based on analyzing cylindrical projection, the coordinate formulae of lunar shearing 35º Mercator projection were obtained. Firstly, the latitudes, longitudes and DN values were read and written to files. A blank frame was established using the four vertices' latitudes and longitudes. Then grids were divided in vertical and horizontal directions, according to the resolution, length ratio and projection theory, realizing the frame's pixels. The DN mosaic was completed along with the coordinates matching, and the matching errors were controlled in less than one pixel. At the same time, the DN values were smoothed for the overlapped regions. Finally the DN values were restored to image, which was the mosaic image. The method has widespread use, and it can also be used for other tracks images mosaic.
Analysis on Precision of Multi-lens Area Array CCD Mapping Camera
Song Mei
2010, 30(6): 589-595. doi: 10.11728/cjss2010.06.589
Abstract(1988) PDF 488KB(986)
Mapping precision is very important for the mapping camera, and there are lots of factors that can influence the survey precision of butting mapping camera. Camera concerned here is the multi-lens butting mapping camera. The mapping precision of the camera, affected by the multi-lens area array CCD butting, the geometry calibration, the coordinate transformation and the image restores processes in the butting mapping camera of outside field of view was studied. Factors influencing the precision and the method to improve the precision of mapping camera were analyzed based on the characteristics of those factors. Through the research, the principal factors that predominate in the precision of mapping camera were decided.
Quasi-optical Analysis of FY-3 Satellite Antenna
Cheng Yueyun, Wang Hongjian, Yi Min, Chen Xue, Liu Guang
2010, 30(6): 596-600. doi: 10.11728/cjss2010.06.596
Abstract(1907) PDF 619KB(998)
A Quasi-optical analysis of FY-3 satellite radiometer antenna system is described. Equivalent electrical and magnetic current sheet were used for the analysis of wire grid cross polarization which could be down to -42 dB from the main polarization. A Gaussian coupling method was then introduced to analyze the offset parabolic mirror which was fed by a corrugated horn at 90º. As long as the reflector's f/D is large, the coupling matrix which is used to model the offset effect of the reflector can be derived in a simple way. The simulations and measurements demonstrated that quasi-optical analysis can be applied to offset reflectors well with its efficiency and accuracy.
High-precision Space-Borne Accelerometer and its Applications
Bai Yanzheng, Tian Wei, Zhou Zebing, Wu Shuchao, Tu Haibo
2010, 30(6): 601-606. doi: 10.11728/cjss2010.06.601
Abstract(2566) PDF 595KB(3495)
High precision accelerometers are not only used to measure the non-gravitational forces such as thermal radiation pressure, solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag, but also used to improve the microgravity level of the spacecraft as an inertial reference, namely to achieve the spacecraft's drag-free control. The basic operation principle of inertial sensor or accelerometer is introduced. The principles of several high-precision accelerometers are described, such as MEMS accelerometers based on the capacitive sensor, MEMS tunneling accelerometers, the superconducting accelerometer, the electrostatic accelerometer and inertial sensors with optical position detection and feedback control. The developmental trend and applications in the fields of the geoscience and fundamental physics of high-precision space-borne accelerometers are discussed. The main development trend is: high-precision and miniaturization MEMS accelerometers, weak stiffness and high-precision satellite-borne accelerometers and cold atom inertial sensors.
Research on the Application of Single-antenna GPS Measurement System on Guided Rocket
Ding Chuanbing, Wang Liangming, Zheng Cuicui
2010, 30(6): 607-611. doi: 10.11728/cjss2010.06.607
Abstract(1988) PDF 531KB(1200)
In order to improve the attitude determination accuracy of the guided rocket which transverse size is not enough for fixing multiple antennae, a single-antenna GPS aiding attitude determination method was proposed. The pseudo attitude was introduced, using which the concrete algorithm for obtaining the altitude is analyzed. And the model of the single-antenna GPS aiding attitude is established. The Kalman filtering is adopted to filter the state vector model. And the relative velocity and acceleration is obtained. According to the relationship between ordinary and pseudo attitude, the ordinary attitude of guided rocket is obtained. Throughout the simulation research, the feasibility and effectiveness of the application of single-antenna GPS system on rocket projectiles is demonstrated.
Review of the Development of Robotic Manipulator for International Space Station
Zhang Kaifeng, Zhou Hui, Wen Qingping, Sang Ruipeng
2010, 30(6): 612-619. doi: 10.11728/cjss2010.06.612
Abstract(2446) PDF 760KB(1801)
In extreme environment of the space, most of Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) has to depend on the aid of robotic manipulator. As a main part of International Space Station (ISS), robotic manipulator is playing a crucial role in the on-orbit assembly, external maintenance and the operations of ISS, and it therefore allays the working time and frequency of astronauts EVA. This paper reviews the development of the robotic manipulator based on ISS member countries' research, including shuttle remote manipulator, space station remote manipulator, European robotic arm, Japanese experiment module remote manipulator and German manipulator. It is expected that the concerning research will provide some references for the design of Chinese robotic manipulator.
Research of Earthquake Electromagnetic Satellite Mission Planning System
Wang Hongfei, Liu Yurong, Yan Zhen
2010, 30(6): 620-625. doi: 10.11728/cjss2010.06.620
Abstract(2177) PDF 482KB(1250)
Earthquake electromagnetic satellite mission planning is the center of satellite management in the orbit. This system's main tasks are 1) to optimize the satellite payload work plan based on the forecasting of regional space characteristics environment in orbit, 2 to get the characteristics space region observational data of the whole track, 3) to arrange observation data downlink. In this paper, the character of Earthquake electromagnetic satellite planning and scheduling system has been investigated. The fundamental principles for the mission planning have been found. The system structure based on the CCSDS standard is proposed. The function requirement and the planning process flow of the system have been analyzed. Then an Earthquake electromagnetic satellite mission planning prototype system is realized to test the feasibility of what we have presented in the paper. Finally, the paper gives the conclusion on the Earthquake electromagnetic satellite mission planning system and points out the system's latest developments trends and application requirement in the future.